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Fingertips nugget list
Fingertips is a database of short segments of text (nuggets) related to many diverse aspects of concrete construction. The alphabetical listing below contains all the current nuggets that can be accessed by clicking on the title. Alternatively you can search by category or use the free text search.

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Total number of nuggets: 1031
Title: ´Basic´ concrete mix design method   (876)
Short description: The Basic Mix design method was devised by Philip Owens when at the C&CA, now the BCA. more

Title: ‘How to design leaflets’ for Eurocode 2   (616)
Short description: A series of leaflets entitled How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 has been produced by the Concrete Centre, which are aimed at making the transition to Eurocode 2 more straightforward. more

Title: Abbreviations for organisations etc   (418)
Short description: There are many trade bodies, societies, government departments and other organisations which have very long ´corporate´ names. more

Title: Abbreviations, common terms etc   (417)
Short description: Abbreviations are used through the construction industry as a short form of product or organisation identification. more

Title: Abrasion resistance – lightweight aggregate   (652)
Short description: For most purposes the abrasion resistance of a floor containing lightweight coarse aggregate can be specified exactly as for a normal weight aggregate concrete floor, provided natural sand is used as the fine aggregate. more

Title: Abreviations for common products   (412)
Short description: The following are common abreviations within the concrete industry. more

Title: Abreviations for common units   (413)
Short description: The following are the basic units used for specifying and designing concrete. more

Title: Accelerating admixtures   (473)
Short description: Accelerating admixtures can be used to increase either the rate of stiffening or setting of the concrete or the rate of hardening and early strength gain to allow earlier formwork striking and demoulding. more

Title: Acceptable crack widths in floors   (898)
Short description: more

Title: Accessories for concrete   (68)
Short description: Accessories for concrete include the small items used during the construction of a concrete structure. more

Title: Accessories for formwork   (31)
Short description: Accessories for formwork includes those small items, such as tie bars required for fixing the formwork in the correct location, materials for sealing to prevent grout loss from the concrete and inserts for fixing dowel bars. more

Title: Accessories for prestressing   (234)
Short description: For prestressing, accessories include the following items. more

Title: Accreditation schemes   (69)
Short description: Many of the processes, such as design, manufacture and supply of concrete, reinforcement and other products are covered by accreditation schemes. more

Title: Achieving good quality (fair faced) concrete finishes   (957)
Short description: There are three main factors required to produce a good quality concrete surface: more

Title: Achieving good quality surface finishes   (647)
Short description: There are three main factors required to produce a good quality concrete surface: more

Title: ACI concrete mix design method   (877)
Short description: ACI recommends a relationship between compressive strength and w/c ratio. more

Title: Acid etched finish   (726)
Short description: Acid etching is a method of removing laitance from the concrete surface to expose the colour and texture of the matrix beneath. more

Title: Acids and concrete   (284)
Short description: Acids generally attack the surface of concrete by dissolving the matrix leading to surface disintegration. more

Title: Action of ‘common’ substances   (285)
Short description: Some common substances that may come into contact with concrete, particularly when the structure is used for processing or storage, and their effects on concrete are shown in the table. more

Title: Adding water to ready-mixed concrete   (1011)
Short description: Generally, it is not a good idea to add extra water to ready-mixed concrete once it has arrived on site. more

Title: Additional concrete section   (40)
Short description: Increasing the concrete cross-section may be appropriate where the existing section has been shown to be deficient, either due to inadequate reinforcement or an insufficient concrete compressive area. more

Title: Additional cover on reinforcing steel   (912)
Short description: It is important to recognise that reinforced concrete will generally crack; only when a crack forms does the reinforcement start to carry any appreciable load. more

Title: Additional prestressing   (39)
Short description: The provision of additional prestressing is a technique that is used to improve the serviceability performance of concrete structures generally by reducing deflections. more

Title: Adhesive connections between precast units   (738)
Short description: Connections between precast concrete units can be formed using adhesives (such as epoxies) rather than cement-based mortars. more

Title: Admixture health & safety   (488)
Short description: All the principal admixture companies supply safety data sheets for their products. more

Title: Admixture standards   (57)
Short description: The British Standard for Admixtures BS 5075 has been replaced by six parts of BS EN 934 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. more

Title: Admixtures - environmental aspects   (150)
Short description: There are many admixture types that improve the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. more

Title: Admixtures for concrete   (127)
Short description: Admixtures are materials, mainly liquids, that are added, to the concrete at the batching stage, and modify the properties of the plastic or hardened concrete. more

Title: Admixtures for home use   (406)
Short description: Chemical admixtures can be purchased from builders merchants and may be used in DIY work. more

Title: Aerated concrete   (15)
Short description: Aerated concrete is produced by the incorporation of a gas or air in a base mortar mix, it is categorised in two groups. more

Title: Aggregate defects.   (523)
Short description: Most aggregates are stable but a few exhibit changes that can affect the performance. more

Title: Aggregate for home use   (405)
Short description: In concrete the major constituent in terms of volume is the aggregate. more

Title: Aggregate sizes   (129)
Short description: Fine aggregate is material that will pass through a 4mm sieve. more

Title: Aggregate softening   (514)
Short description: Softening can take place when an aggregate contains weak or porous particles. more

Title: Aggregate swelling and shrinkage   (513)
Short description: Shrinkage of clay-rich particles is very common although they do not usually form a large proportion of an aggregate. more

Title: Aggregate transparency   (971)
Short description: Aggregate transparency can occur in formed concrete when there is segregation of fines and associated water between the form-face and the coarse aggregate. more

Title: Aggregate type   (130)
Short description: Normal weight aggregates, used for most concretes, are naturally occurring gravels from land or marine sources, or crushed rocks, for example, limestone, granite or basalt. more

Title: Aggregates - European standards   (54)
Short description: The following European Standards cover the properties of aggregates. more

Title: Aggregates – Tests for properties   (610)
Short description: The following Standards cover the properties of aggregates for concrete; each is divided into a number of Parts as indicated. more

Title: Aggregates and the environment   (195)
Short description: Actions taken by the aggregate industry to reduce the environmental impact of aggregate production include the increased use of recycled concrete as aggregate and artificial aggregates made from by-products of other industries. more

Title: Aggregates for concrete   (128)
Short description: In concrete the major constituent in terms of volume is Aggregate. more

Title: Air Content Test   (561)
Short description: An air content test is required for checking air-entrained concrete. more

Title: Air-entraining admixtures   (474)
Short description: Air-entraining admixtures cause small stable bubbles of air to form uniformly through a concrete mix. more

Title: Airfield concrete   (442)
Short description: Concrete used in the construction of roads and airfield runways and aprons is not unlike that used in other building or civil engineering projects. more

Title: Airports and concrete.   (626)
Short description: Concrete is extensively used for the runways, taxiways and aprons of airports. more

Title: Alkali activated cements (including geopolymer cements)   (902)
Short description: Alkali-activated cements gain their strength, and other properties, via chemical reaction between a source of alkali (soluble base activator) and aluminate-rich materials. more

Title: Anchorages for post-tensioning   (541)
Short description: Anchorages are used to fix the ends of the tendons in post-tensioning systems. more

Title: Angle grinder   (741)
Short description: An angle grinder, fitted with either abrasive wheels or diamond tipped blades, may be used to form a shallow cut into concrete. more

Title: Approach to design   (228)
Short description: Design standards specify the required load capacities of structures and aspects of their in-service performance (such as recommendations for permissible deflections). more

Title: Assessing as-struck in-situ concrete surface finishes   (958)
Short description: Assessing the quality of concrete surface finishes is a matter of opinion since it is subjective rather than objective. more

Title: Assessing concrete surface finishes   (646)
Short description: The production of a good quality ‘as struck’ finish is not an easy task and one of the biggest problems is the subjective interpretation of a written specification. more

Title: Assessment - general   (438)
Short description: To assess the characteristics of a mix, there are any number of tests that can be performed on both the hardened and fresh concrete. more

Title: Assessment of concrete bridges   (863)
Short description: Bridges are key parts of the road network and it is therefore essential that they should be able to carry the required traffic loads, which may be greater than those for which they were originally designed. more

Title: Assessment of existing structural strength   (705)
Short description: The Highways Agency document BD 44/95, The assessment of concrete highway bridges and structures, modified clauses in BS 5400 Part 4, Code of practice for design of concrete bridges, for use when determining the strength of existing bridges. more

Title: Assessment of fire-damaged structures   (893)
Short description: Most fire-damaged structures can be successfully repaired, this being the more cost-effective solution than demolition and reconstruction. more

Title: Assessment of historic concrete structures   (838)
Short description: There will be many situations in which there may be a need to assess the condition of concrete structures, for example if there are visible signs of distress (e. more

Title: Assessment of in situ concrete strength   (703)
Short description: There may be a need to assess the strength of the concrete in an existing structure, perhaps to determine its ability to carry additional loads or following modification. more

Title: Assessment of reinforcement strength   (704)
Short description: There may be a need to assess the strength of the reinforcement in an existing structure, perhaps to determine its ability to carry additional loads or following modification. more

Title: Aureole in concrete   (975)
Short description: These appear as dark rings around tie-bolt holes. more

Title: Autogenous healing   (651)
Short description: Autogenous healing is the natural process of crack repair that can occur in concrete in the presence of moisture, and the absence of tensile stress. more

Title: Autogenous shrinkage cracks   (798)
Short description: Autogenous shrinkage is an important phenomenon in young concrete. more

Title: Avoiding thermal contraction cracks   (450)
Short description: In terms of avoiding thermal contraction cracks, experience has shown that by limiting temperature differentials to 20°C in gravel aggregate concrete, cracking can be avoided. more

Title: Axial shortening of columns   (890)
Short description: Reinforced concrete columns and walls shorten owing to elastic compression, creep and shrinkage, although the effect is not significant for buildings less than about 10–15 storeys. more

Title: Bacteria-based self-healing concrete   (1015)
Short description: The concept of bacteria-based self-healing concrete was developed in the Netherlands, has received considerable interest from the press and is the subject of numerous UK research programmes. more

Title: Bacteriological attack   (518)
Short description: Bacteriological attack is, strictly, a misnomer as bacteria do not themselves attack concrete. more

Title: Bagged cements   (803)
Short description: There is more than one type of cement available in bags from builders’ merchants. more

Title: Ball penetration test (Kelly ball)   (999)
Short description: This is a simple field test to measure workability by determining the depth to which a 6 inch (150mm)diameter metal weight 30lb (~13. more

Title: Bar bending - tolerances   (1021)
Short description: Standard deductions are applied to the dimensions of bent bars between concrete faces to improve the confidence in achieving minimum covers and to improve fit. more

Title: Bare Essentials of Concrete   (1027)
Short description: The Bare Essentials of Concrete series of short education films, by Expedition Engineering and sponsored by Construct. more

Title: Basement grades and types   (1016)
Short description: Construction of a basement has become common place, especially in urban areas where land costs are high. more

Title: Basements for Dwellings - Building regulations   (1018)
Short description: Approved Documents (AD) provide guidance for the implementation of Building Regulation requirements. more

Title: Basements- Waterprooofing options   (1017)
Short description:

more


Title: Basic properties   (525)
Short description: The following Table gives the compressive strengths (based on cylinders and cubes), modulus of elasticity and tensile strength for various strength classes of normal weight concrete. more

Title: Basis of design   (233)
Short description: The basic principle of prestressed concrete design is that some or all of the concrete cross-section is put into compression during the construction process. more

Title: Batch water reduction   (197)
Short description: Water-reducing chemical admixtures can dramatically reduce the amount of water required to achieve the specified workability and durability. more

Title: Batching by volume - DIY   (440)
Short description: When concrete is to be mixed on site rather than ordered from a ready-mixed concrete supplier, an estimate of the materials needed is necessary. more

Title: Batching concrete.   (210)
Short description: Batching is the process of mixing the concrete. more

Title: Beam & block floors   (313)
Short description: These systems combine prestressed beams with either solid blocks or voided ‘pots’. more

Title: Beam and block floors   (1034)
Short description: Typically concrete masonry units are placed between prestressed or reinforced concrete beams to provide a floor capable of taking domestic loading at ground and upper floors. more

Title: Beam vibrators   (215)
Short description: In their simplest form, beam vibrators consist are petrol-driven or electrical vibrators mounted on a suitable length timber beam, spanning between side formwork, that are used level and compact concrete slabs. more

Title: Beams and columns (BS EN)   (764)
Short description: The requirements for the basic performance criteria and evaluation of conformity for precast beams, columns and frame elements made from reinforced or prestressed normal weight concrete, used for the construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures (except bridges), are given in: more

Title: Bending schedules   (115)
Short description: The design of the reinforcement for a concrete member will generally lead to the requirement for a variety of shapes as well as straight bars. more

Title: Benefits of prestressing   (538)
Short description: The main benefit of prestressing is that the build up of tension under service loads and possible cracking may be avoided or reduced to a low level. more

Title: Bimetallic (galvanic) corrosion between stainless and carbon steel reinforcement   (939)
Short description: Stainless steel reinforcement can be used to minimise the risk of corrosion in severe environmental conditions. more

Title: Biological growth   (519)
Short description: Concrete surfaces can become discoloured for a variety of reasons. more

Title: Bleeding and segregation   (832)
Short description: Bleeding is a form of segregation where some of the water in the concrete tends to rise to the surface of the freshly placed material. more

Title: Blemishes in power trowelled slabs   (900)
Short description: Power trowelled concrete floors occasionally exhibit surface blemishes believed to be caused by the proximity to the surface of coarse aggregate particles. more

Title: Blocks and bricks   (27)
Short description: BS 6073 Part 2, Method for specifying precast concrete masonry units gives sizes and strengths in common use together with other useful information. more

Title: Blow holes   (453)
Short description: Blow holes are individual, generally rounded, cavities on vertical surfaces of concrete, generally less than 10 mm across. more

Title: Blue tinge associated with ggbs   (732)
Short description: Concrete containing a blended cement of Portland cement and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) will sometimes exhibit a blue tinge on the surface, after the form-face has been struck, during the first few days of exposure to air. more

Title: Bolted Linings   (319)
Short description: and sulfate resisting cement. more

Title: Bond and reinforcing bar lap length   (590)
Short description: BS EN 1992-1-1:2004, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for Buildings, clause 8. more

Title: Bonding aids   (493)
Short description: The objectives of applying a bonding aid are to reduce the suction from the substrate and to provide an adhesive that sticks the repair matrial to the parent concrete in the hardened state. more

Title: Box Culverts   (301)
Short description: Box culvert sections can be manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes. more

Title: BRE Concrete mix design method   (435)
Short description: A popular simplified mix design method is that from BRE. more

Title: Breaking out   (491)
Short description: Before breaking out is undertaken, it is necessary to be certain that the reduction in structural section will not overstress the member. more

Title: Bridge cantilever construction - applications   (379)
Short description: This type of construction has been used in a large number of bridges around the world. more

Title: Bridge cantilever construction - cable stayed   (467)
Short description: Cable-stayed bridges can be built as a cantilever construction. more

Title: Bridge cantilever construction - insitu   (378)
Short description: Balanced cantilever construction is an economical method when access from the below is expensive or practically impossible. more

Title: Bridge cantilever construction - precast   (377)
Short description: Balanced cantilever construction is an economical method when access from below is expensive or practically impossible. more

Title: Bridge deck waterproofing   (777)
Short description: The waterproofing of bridge decks is recognised in the UK as a vital operation to enhance the durability of the structure. more

Title: Bridge expansion joints   (735)
Short description: Bridges expand and contract due to temperature changes. more

Title: Bridges and concrete.   (169)
Short description: Concrete is used for all the component parts of bridges, that is the foundations, abutments and retaining walls, piers, main beams, deck slab. more

Title: Bridges and tunnels   (627)
Short description: Concrete is widely used for the construction of new bridges and tunnels for railways, see separate entries Civil engineering/Bridges and Civil engineering/Tunnels and associated sub-entries. more

Title: British Standard definitions for chairs   (364)
Short description: BS 7973 defines the various types of chairs available as follows. more

Title: British Standard definitions for spacers   (363)
Short description: BS 7973 defines the various types of spacers available as follows. more

Title: Brushed finish   (881)
Short description: A brushed finish is obtained by pulling a brush over the surface of the fresh concrete, after the surface has been levelled. more

Title: BS 8500 - Concrete   (436)
Short description: BS 8500 - Concrete, is the complementary British Standard to BS EN 206 - 1 and was first published in March 2002. more

Title: Building - definition of   (70)
Short description: Building is the general term used to cover construction for the dwellings, office space, retail premises, public spaces etc. more

Title: Building a concrete pond   (601)
Short description: Concrete can make a durable and long lasting garden pond, although the effects of freeze thaw action should be taken into consideration. more

Title: Building a concrete pond   (809)
Short description: Concrete can make a durable and long lasting garden pond, although the effects of freeze thaw action should be taken into consideration. more

Title: Building applications   (253)
Short description: A wide range of structural possibilities is provided by load bearing concrete masonry. more

Title: Building performance Questions   (666)
Short description: This is wide ranging subject area which covers the performance of the structure as a whole or part thereof. more

Title: Building Regulations   (66)
Short description: The Building Regulations cover all aspects of the design of a building, to ensure the safety of the structure itself, its performance and the well-being of its users. more

Title: Burnishing of concrete   (973)
Short description: This appears as random dark glossy areas on power trowelled surfaces. more

Title: Calcuim chloride   (887)
Short description: Calcium chloride was used as an accelerating admixture in concrete up until the mid 1970s. more

Title: Capillary rise test   (987)
Short description: A sample of concrete is placed with one surface just in contact with water and the height or weight of water absorbed by capillary rise is measured. more

Title: Carbonation depth   (463)
Short description: Cement paste has a pH of about 13 which provides a protective layer (passive coating) to the steel reinforcement against corrosion. more

Title: Carbonation of concrete   (736)
Short description: Carbonation is the reaction of carbon dioxide in the environment with the calcium hydroxide in the cement paste. more

Title: Casting concrete sculptures   (808)
Short description: For most sculptures a master is made, from which a mould is produced, in which the concrete is cast. more

Title: Cathodic protection   (498)
Short description: Cathodic protection is used to prevent or reduce corrosion rates. more

Title: Cathodic protection   (937)
Short description: A full revision of the European Standard on cathodic protection of steel in concrete has been adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO). more

Title: Cathodic protection   (926)
Short description: Many Clients are starting to require that personnel involved with the design, installation, operation, maintenance and monitoring of cathodic protection systems for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures should be accredited in accordance with BS EN 15257, Competence levels and certification of cathodic protection personnel, or are similarly qualified and experienced. more

Title: Cathodic protection - European Standard   (505)
Short description:  more

Title: CE Marking   (564)
Short description: From April 2001 it has been possible for construction products to be placed on the UK and European market with CE Marking, based on a harmonised European Standard. more

Title: Cement and additions   (132)
Short description: Safety Note - Most cements when mixed with water are highly alkaline and can produce alkali burns to unprotected skin. more

Title: Cement and concrete terminology   (629)
Short description: With the advent of European Standards, new words and phrases have been introduced in describing aspects of cement and concrete. more

Title: Cement for home use   (270)
Short description: Portland composite cements (CEM II cements) containing fly ash or limestone replacements are the most common form of bagged cement used for general purposes and can be purchased in 25 kg bags from local builders merchants. more

Title: Cement history   (286)
Short description: A lime concrete floor, made from quicklime (burnt limestone), stones and water built about 7000BC was found in Israel in 1985. more

Title: Cement sand levelling screeds to receive floorings   (816)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 1: more

Title: Cementitious terrazzo wearing surfaces   (817)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 4: more

Title: Chain sawing & chain plunge sawing   (831)
Short description: These machines are a development of the standard wood chain saw and are either hydraulically or petrol powered. more

Title: Chemical deterioration   (280)
Short description: Good concrete is not affected by many kinds of chemicals. more

Title: Chloride extraction   (499)
Short description: Electrochemical chloride extraction (or ‘desalination’) systems have been developed to remove chloride ions from contaminated concrete to overcome the problem of chloride-induced corrosion. more

Title: Chloride in concrete (BS 8500)   (917)
Short description: more

Title: Chloride ion concentration   (643)
Short description: In chloride-contaminated concrete, it is necessary to determine the concentration of chloride ions at various depths in order to determine the likelihood of corrosion of the reinforcing steel. more

Title: Chlorides and concrete.   (282)
Short description: The most significant and common sources of chlorides are marine environments and from de-icing salts applied to road surfaces during cold weather (winter). more

Title: Chlorine in swimming pool water   (938)
Short description: Can the water in chlorinated swimming pools lead to chloride induced corrosion to the concrete´s embedded reinforcement? more

Title: Chromium VI directive   (773)
Short description: The Chromium (VI) Directive applies to cement and cement-containing preparations, effective from 17 January 2005. more

Title: Civil engineering   (71)
Short description: Civil engineering is the general term used to cover construction for the infrastructure (such as roads, railways, bridges, docks and harbours) and major structures such as power stations. more

Title: Clam test   (573)
Short description: Water permeability can be measured using the Clam, also known as the Autoclam, developed by Queens University Belfast. more

Title: Cleaning – general   (578)
Short description: Stains and growths can be removed from concrete, although it may be difficult to remove stains completely. more

Title: Cold Joints   (372)
Short description: Cold joints are formed primarily between two batches of concrete where the delivery and placement of the second batch has been delayed and the initial placed and compacted concrete has started to set. more

Title: Cold store floors   (998)
Short description: the enclosed environment to the operating temperature. more

Title: Cold weather concreting   (392)
Short description: Special care must be taken when concrete is cast in winter. more

Title: Cold weather concreting – composite slabs on steel decking   (884)
Short description: Composite slabs on steel decking are widely used in steel framed buildings as they provide a quick and economical form of construction. more

Title: Cold weather concreting - using heated concrete   (562)
Short description: When concreting in cold weather, heated concrete has a ‘flying start’ in the race for early strength, provided that the heat is retained. more

Title: Colour fade of paving flags   (784)
Short description: Coloured, not natural, slabs are generally pigmented throughout. more

Title: Colour variation   (455)
Short description: Inherent colour variation, as opposed to surface staining or moisture and grout loss though leaking joints, is almost inevitable. more

Title: Colour variation   (920)
Short description: Concrete is a mixture of materials, the variability of which can influence the colour of the finished concrete. more

Title: Coloured concrete   (660)
Short description: Coloured concrete is used in a wide variety of applications. more

Title: Column formwork   (857)
Short description: The column formwork systems now available are normally modular in nature and allow quick assembly and erection on site while minimising labour and crane time. more

Title: Combination cements and environment   (194)
Short description: Cementitious materials produced from by-products of other industries, for example, ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) and fly ash, also known as pulverised-fuel ash (pfa), can be used to supplement the Portland cement clinker. more

Title: Common questions   (665)
Short description: Compiling a list of Frequently Asked Questions on concrete construction issues is an impossible task. more

Title: Compacting & finishing   (207)
Short description: Fresh concrete must be compacted to ensure that it fully surrounds the reinforcement and completely fills the formwork or moulds. more

Title: Compacting factor test (BS 1881: Part 103)   (980)
Short description:

more


Title: Compaction of concrete.   (533)
Short description: After concrete has been mixed, transported and placed, it contains entrapped air in the form of large voids. more

Title: Compaction of concrete.   (531)
Short description: After concrete has been mixed, transported and placed, it contains entrapped air in the form of large voids. more

Title: Composite Suspended Floors   (354)
Short description: An efficient form of construction for suspended floors is to use precast concrete units with in situ concrete to form a composite slab. more

Title: Composting facilities - loss of exposed surfaces   (945)
Short description:

more


Title: Concept design – frames   (599)
Short description: There are various types of reinforced suspended concrete floors that may be used in buildings, ranging from flat slabs, through one- and two-way slabs, to ribbed and waffle slabs. more

Title: Concise Eurocode 2   (813)
Short description: Eurocode 2 (BS EN 1992-1-1) sets out general rules for the design of concrete structures and rules for the design of buildings. more

Title: Concise Eurocode 2 for bridges   (923)
Short description: Part 2 of Eurocode 2 (BS EN 1992-2) sets out general rules for the design of concrete bridges. more

Title: Concrete - normal types   (163)
Short description: Concrete can be classified in many ways. more

Title: Concrete bases for screeds   (818)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 1: more

Title: Concrete beams   (272)
Short description: Beams are the main horizontal load-bearing elements of frame buildings and of structures such as bridges. more

Title: Concrete Buildings Scheme Design Manual   (834)
Short description: The Institution of Structural Engineers’ Chartered Membership Examination is highly regarded both nationally and internationally. more

Title: Concrete cladding   (252)
Short description: The external cladding to a building can be wholly or partly of precast concrete panels, sometimes faced with brick or stone panels fastened to the precast concrete. more

Title: Concrete columns   (273)
Short description: Columns are the main vertical load-bearing elements of many buildings. more

Title: Concrete countertops   (565)
Short description: There is a growing interest in the use of polished concrete for countertops, work surfaces and other domestic applications. more

Title: Concrete drainage   (256)
Short description: Many different types of precast concrete units are available for drainage application. more

Title: Concrete Drainage/Pipes   (328)
Short description: Flexibly jointed concrete pipes (to BS 5911: more

Title: Concrete fencing   (618)
Short description: Precast concrete fence posts are available in a range of sizes and heights. more

Title: Concrete finishes – general   (725)
Short description: A great variety of colours, textures and finishes can be obtained from in situ or precast concrete. more

Title: Concrete floor finishes   (636)
Short description: The floor of a car park should be serviceable but not noticeable. more

Title: Concrete footbridges   (367)
Short description: Concrete footbridges will use either in situ construction or precast units and may be either reinforced or prestressed. more

Title: Concrete for aggricultural and general purposes   (940)
Short description: The specification and production of concrete from the ready-mixed concrete industry is governed by Standards. more

Title: Concrete for female secant piles   (1029)
Short description: more

Title: Concrete for manhole surrounds and kerb backing   (827)
Short description: Traditionally, where aggressive ground conditions (e. more

Title: Concrete for pumping   (554)
Short description: The concrete mix design must be correctly proportioned so that the concrete will flow easily and uniformly through the pipe-line. more

Title: Concrete for vertical slipforming   (1032)
Short description: Variation of the rate of climb of the slipform and the control of setting and hardening of the concrete in varying ambient temperatures dictate that the mix design. more

Title: Concrete foundations   (271)
Short description: Concrete foundations in their simplest form consist of concrete cast directly onto the ground, such as strip foundations for walls or pad foundations for columns. more

Title: Concrete from ready-mixed concrete suppliers   (429)
Short description: A ready-mixed concrete plant is set up to produce many types of concrete. more

Title: Concrete history   (287)
Short description: The early history of concrete follows that of cement. more

Title: Concrete Masonry   (722)
Short description: Concrete bricks and blocks are available in a wide range of compressive strengths to suit all applications. more

Title: Concrete paving   (254)
Short description: Precast concrete is widely used as to provide paved areas with the use of flags, blocks, kerbs, channels, etc. more

Title: Concrete paving blocks   (325)
Short description: Concrete block paving is available in a variety of colours, shapes and textures. more

Title: Concrete paving flags   (324)
Short description: Concrete flag paving is available in a variety of colours and textures, enabling it to be used to delineate different functions. more

Title: Concrete repairs   (490)
Short description: Repairs are sometimes known as ‘patch repair’ when the area to be treated is small and ‘skin repair’ when, for example, the whole side of a member is to be broken out and reinstated. more

Title: Concrete resistivity   (444)
Short description: Corrosion of reinforcing steel is an electro-chemical process. more

Title: Concrete Society Technical Report 11   (934)
Short description: Concrete core testing for strength 1976, amended 1987, has been withdrawn as it has been superseded by British and European Standards. more

Title: Concrete softening (Carbonate imbalance)   (933)
Short description: On long term immersion in water (such as in storage reservoirs), cement has a tendency to soften and dissolve, the extent of which is dependent on both the pH and the hardness of the water: the softer the water, the faster the rate of dissolution. more

Title: Concrete surfaces for painting   (654)
Short description: There are a number of problems relating to preparing or producing a concrete surface suitable for painting. more

Title: Concrete Tiles   (323)
Short description: Concrete roofing tiles, in accordance with BS EN 490, are available in a wide range of sizes and colours. more

Title: Concrete towers for wind farms   (854)
Short description: Harnessing wind energy is one of the most economically developed and rapidly growing renewable energy sources, both in the UK and worldwide. more

Title: Concrete type by application   (681)
Short description: There are many forms of concrete. more

Title: Concrete type by property   (159)
Short description: There are many forms of concrete. more

Title: Concrete walls   (248)
Short description: Concrete walls are vertical structural elements of a building used to carry loads, enclose spaces, support applied finishes, and occasionally provide plain-formed architectural finishes directly. more

Title: Concrete wearing surfaces   (819)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 2: more

Title: Congested reinforcement   (648)
Short description: Congested reinforcement can lead to many problems of placing and compacting concrete. more

Title: Conrete pumps   (219)
Short description: Pumps are a convenient way of moving concrete both vertically and horizontally around the site, from the point of discharge of the ready mixed concrete truck to the point at which is required to be placed. more

Title: Consistence tolerance - slump test   (800)
Short description: Consistence, measured using the slump test (BS EN 12350-2), is either specified as a class or target. more

Title: Constituent materials   (420)
Short description: The basic materials which make up the constituents or ingredients of concrete are Portland cement (not a trade name), sand, coarse aggregate (also called gravel or stone) and water. more

Title: Constituents of concrete   (126)
Short description: The basic constituents of concrete are cement, water and aggregate. more

Title: Construction - definition of   (73)
Short description: Construction is the total process of building a concrete structure to achieve the required form, strength and appearance. more

Title: Construction aspects   (225)
Short description: Any construction process will have an effect on the local environment. more

Title: Construction inspection   (84)
Short description: Inspection should be carried out at all steps in the construction process to ensure quality. more

Title: Construction joints - vertical   (399)
Short description: It is often not possible to complete a job at one go, for example because of the size or complexity of the structure or because of limited materials or manpower. more

Title: Construction Joints - horizontal   (398)
Short description: It is often not possible to complete a job at one go, for example because of the size or complexity of the structure or because of limited materials or manpower. more

Title: Construction methods for external paving   (874)
Short description: Traditional construction methods for external paving can lead to slower rates of progress and as a result the construction of the paving may be on the ‘critical path’ of the construction programme. more

Title: Construction of composite slabs with steel decking   (885)
Short description: The most common application for composite slabs on steel decking is in steel framed buildings. more

Title: Construction of dams   (369)
Short description: The size of concrete pours for dam construction are large. more

Title: Construction of prestressed concrete   (755)
Short description: In general the construction of prestressed concrete elements (either pre-tensioned or post-tensioned) will be the same as that for reinforced concrete. more

Title: Construction questions   (696)
Short description: This is wide ranging subject area which covers almost any process that requires the connection of more than one element to form a structure or part structure. more

Title: Construction related cracks   (17)
Short description: Various types of cracks may be formed during the construction process and changes within the young concrete. more

Title: Construction related defects   (521)
Short description: Unless care is taken with the design of the formwork and falsework, the selection of the concrete materials and the placing of the concrete, various defects may result. more

Title: Construction Waste   (864)
Short description: Construction and demolition is the single largest UK waste stream, and includes over 20% of all hazardous waste and 20% of fly-tipped waste. more

Title: Containing waste; cut-off walls   (770)
Short description: Cut-off walls and engineered barriers, using cement-based grouts or concrete, can be formed using a range of ground engineering technologies to confine contamination, permitting redevelopment or re-use of a site. more

Title: Contiguous Bored Piles/Secant Piles   (351)
Short description: Closely spaced bored piles can be used to form a retaining wall, perhaps for the construction of a deep basement or a cut and cover tunnel. more

Title: Continuous track supporting slab   (628)
Short description: An alternative to conventional individual sleepers (or ties) resting on ballast for railway lines is the use of a continuous reinforced concrete slab. more

Title: Control of cracking   (889)
Short description: Reinforced concrete will generally crack. more

Title: Controlled permeability formwork   (793)
Short description: Concrete cast against wood or steel formwork has a reduced cement content and increased water/cement ratio (concrete is less dense and more porous) compared to concrete located beyond the cover zone. more

Title: Controlling thermal contraction cracks   (451)
Short description: The basic principle for the control of cracking is to provide a minimum amount of reinforcement such that its tensile capacity exceeds that of the concrete when it cracks. more

Title: Conveyors for concrete.   (220)
Short description: Concrete can be moved quickly for limited distances by conveyor. more

Title: Core drill   (744)
Short description: Core drilling is commonly used to create the holes for routing cables or for placing anchor bolts. more

Title: Core drill trailer rigs   (828)
Short description: more

Title: Core testing for strength   (576)
Short description: Cores are cut using a drill with a hollow barrel tipped with industrial diamonds. more

Title: Corrosion inhibitors   (497)
Short description: Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures, such as calcium nitrite, have been available for many years. more

Title: Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures   (477)
Short description: Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures increase the passivation of reinforcement and other embedded steel. more

Title: COSHH Regulations   (61)
Short description: The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations, issued by the Health and Safety Executive, cover many of the materials used in concrete and in construction (including cement, admixtures etc. more

Title: Couplers for reinforcement   (124)
Short description: When long lengths of bar are required, or when joining additional reinforcement to existing bars, bars are generally ‘lapped’ i. more

Title: Cover for concrete cast against formwork in the ground (BS 8500: 2015)   (1028)
Short description:

more


Title: Cover for concrete cast against formwork in the ground (BS 8500:2006)   (930)
Short description: BS 8500-1: 2006 Concrete, Table A. more

Title: Cover to reinforcement   (993)
Short description: In nearly all instances, cracks develop at the surface of concrete and are restrained by the tensile reinforcement. more

Title: Crack injection   (489)
Short description: Cracks need to be treated only when they are a potential threat to the durability of the reinforcement or are causing unacceptable leaks. more

Title: Crack width and aesthetics   (911)
Short description: Design codes such as Eurocode 2 (as amended by the UK National Annex), and BS 8110 (withdrawn) limit crack widths to 0. more

Title: Crack width measurement   (464)
Short description: The widths of cracks on the surface of concrete can be measured using a simple comparator consisting of a plastic strip with fixed width lines. more

Title: Cracking in composite concrete/metal decking floor slabs   (960)
Short description: Composite concrete/profiled steel sheet slabs are a popular form of construction for suspended floor slabs, as they are simple and economical to design and construct. more

Title: Cracks at joints   (23)
Short description: Cracks that may form at construction joints. more

Title: Cracks due to alkali-silica reaction   (223)
Short description: Alkali-silica reaction occurs when the alkaline pour fluid in the cement paste reacts with the minerals in some aggregates. more

Title: Cracks due to anchorage or lap failure   (189)
Short description: Failure of the anchorage of a ribbed bar, or failure of a lap between ribbed bars, will lead to the formation of cracks along the line of the bar. more

Title: Cracks due to freeze-thaw   (222)
Short description: Water held in the pores of cement paste will freeze at low temperatures. more

Title: Cracks due to impact damage   (191)
Short description: Depending on the force applied, impact of a hard object on a concrete member may simply lead to some crushing of the concrete in the contact region but severe impact may also cause spalling of concrete from the back face. more

Title: Cracks due to reinforcement corrosion   (192)
Short description: Steel corrosion products (rust) usually occupy a much larger volume than the un-corroded steel and result in bursting stresses that can cause cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. more

Title: Cracks in concrete   (99)
Short description: Cracks may result from overloading and in very severe cases may affect the full depth and width of a concrete element. more

Title: Cracks induced by temperature changes   (190)
Short description: All structures will be subjected to some form of temperature cycling during their life on a daily and/or seasonal basis. more

Title: Crazing – power trowelled floors   (653)
Short description: Surface crazing of power trowelled slabs would appear to be a very common phenomenon. more

Title: Crib Walls   (317)
Short description: Crib walls are formed from interlocking precast units (parallel to and at right angles to the line of the wall) that are built up to form a series of hollow boxes. more

Title: CSA-belite cements   (1002)
Short description: in rotary kilns. more

Title: Cube dimensions and strength   (918)
Short description: The concrete structural code Eurocode 2 (BS EN 1992) is based on cylinder compressive strength. more

Title: Cubes - general   (556)
Short description: It is a standard quality control procedure to make test cubes from the fresh concrete, which are then stored under controlled conditions and tested (generally at an age of 28 days). more

Title: Curing compounds & release agents   (200)
Short description: Various materials are used as curing compounds, formwork release agents and other treatments. more

Title: Curing concrete   (393)
Short description: Curing is the process of preventing the loss of moisture from the young concrete whilst maintaining a satisfactory temperature regime. more

Title: Curling of ground-supported floor slabs   (810)
Short description: Curling of ground-supported floor slabs has been, and continues to be a problem. more

Title: CUSUM (cumulative sum control chart)   (1014)
Short description: CUSUM (or cumulative sum control chart) is a sequential analysis statistical technique developed in the 1950s and widely used in the concrete industry. more

Title: Cut and cover tunnels   (373)
Short description: ‘Cut and cover’ is an approach used for constructing shallow tunnels in situations where all the ground above the tunnel can be cleared. more

Title: Cutting and bending reinforcement on site   (118)
Short description: Generally reinforcement will be supplied cut and bent to the required shape. more

Title: Dams and concrete.   (170)
Short description: Concrete is the preferred material for dams, either for the whole structure (such as an arch dam) or for face in contact with the water. more

Title: Dark discolouration on smooth formed concrete surfaces (mottling)   (955)
Short description: Patches of localised dark discolouration, or mottling, very often occur on concrete surfaces cast against smooth impermeable form faces, e. more

Title: Decorative concrete   (162)
Short description: The appearance of concrete is very important. more

Title: Decorative concrete floors   (941)
Short description: There are many decorative finishes that can be achieved on concrete floors - direct polish, diamond ground and polished, stained etc. more

Title: Defect, damage, and repair questions   (697)
Short description: This is wide ranging subject area which covers inherent defects, unforeseen problems, workmanship errors, damage and subsequent repair. more

Title: Defects and Deterioration   (503)
Short description: The term ‘defect’ may be used to describe a range of minor imperfections visible on the surface of the concrete. more

Title: Definitions of terms describing reinforcement and prestressing steel   (806)
Short description: Defining a technique and using the correct terminology correctly is important. more

Title: Deflections in slabs and beams   (779)
Short description: Deflections must always be considered in the design of slabs and beams. more

Title: Degree of compactability test   (981)
Short description: The degree of compactability test is described in BS EN 12350-4: more

Title: Delamination of concrete floor surfaces   (956)
Short description: Delamination is a common problem affecting power-finished concrete floor slabs, although it must be stressed that many thousands of square metres of high-quality concrete floors are built each year without this problem. more

Title: Delayed ettringite formation (DEF)   (932)
Short description: more

Title: deleted   (147)
Short description:

Title: Demolition & recycling   (208)
Short description: There will often be a need to demolish concrete structures, either partially or fully. more

Title: Demolition hammers and breakers   (868)
Short description: Demolition hammers typically deliver over 2000 blows per minute, demolishing concrete walls, ceilings and paths. more

Title: Demolition of concrete   (747)
Short description: Various pieces of equipment are available for small scale, or localised, demolition of concrete. more

Title: Depth of water penetration under pressure   (990)
Short description: For dense and, hence, low permeability concrete, the depth of penetration method is usually a more practical proposition than permeability flow tests. more

Title: Design - definition of   (74)
Short description: Design covers the process of determining the overall concept of the structure itself, deciding on the form of construction and selecting appropriate dimensions and details to ensure that the structure carries the loads as intended throughout the structure´s intended life. more

Title: Design - European Standards   (292)
Short description: Common European Standards are being prepared to cover all aspects of design. more

Title: Design and Quality Assurance   (45)
Short description: Various bodies provide accreditation for Quality Assurance schemes that cover the design of structures, including BSI and Lloyd’s Register. more

Title: Design codes and standards   (24)
Short description: The main Code of Practice for the design of reinforced or prestressed concrete structures (excluding bridges) was BS 8110, Structural use of concrete. more

Title: Design for movements in buildings   (888)
Short description: The greater parts of codes of practice and textbooks on reinforced concrete focus on design to resist externally applied loads, deriving the reinforcement needed to resist axial loads, bending moments and shear forces. more

Title: Design of external in-situ concrete paving   (871)
Short description: Thickness design methods for unreinforced and reinforced concrete pavements have been established for many years. more

Title: Design of falsework   (265)
Short description: Falsework must be designed to carry all vertical, horizontal and inclined loads imposed upon it by the structure it is supporting including construction operations and wind loading. more

Title: Design of fibre-reinforced external in-situ concrete paving   (872)
Short description: Many thousands of square metres of fibre-reinforced concrete warehouse floors and areas of external concrete paving have been successfully constructed in the United Kingdom over the past five to ten years. more

Title: Design of flat slab floors   (846)
Short description: Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. more

Title: Design of formwork   (267)
Short description: The design of formwork should be undertaken by an experienced Temporary Works Designer. more

Title: Design of ground-supported floors   (622)
Short description: Traditionally ground-supported floor slabs have been designed by elastic methods, using equations developed by Westergaard in the 1920s that are still widely used. more

Title: Design of holding down bolts   (947)
Short description: more

Title: Design of piled foundations to resist wind and NHL   (1020)
Short description: Question. more

Title: Design Principles   (47)
Short description: Concrete structures are designed to Limit State principles, with the intention that they should behave adequately in use (the Serviceability Limit State) and also have sufficient strength under load (the Ultimate limit State). more

Title: Design working life   (750)
Short description: BS EN 1990, Eurocode - Basis of structural design, (Eurocode 0) gives indicative design working lives (in Table 2. more

Title: Designated - ready-mixed concrete   (430)
Short description: British Standard BS 8500-1: more

Title: Designed - ready-mixed concrete   (431)
Short description: British Standard BS 8500-1: more

Title: Designed and Detailed   (919)
Short description: Designed and Detailed has been one of the standard publications giving guidance on the design of a reinforced concrete framed structure since it was first published by the Cement and Concrete Association in 1973. more

Title: Detailed inspection   (289)
Short description: In addition to a review of all the observations made in the preliminary report a detailed inspection should be planned by firstly bringing together and assessing any additional material such as existing records. more

Title: Detailing of reinforcement   (644)
Short description: Design methods in codes of practice lead to the required cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement in a member (e. more

Title: Detailing symbols (previous & current)   (656)
Short description: The symbols used on reinforcement drawings to indicate the type of reinforcement have been specified in various Standards over the years, as indicated below: more

Title: Deterioration by abrasion   (278)
Short description: Abrasion can lead to the wearing away of surface concrete. more

Title: Deterioration by impact   (277)
Short description: Impact damage usually causes some concrete to be damaged and lost. more

Title: Deterioration of concrete   (306)
Short description: As with all materials, concrete deteriorates with time, mainly due to the efects of the environment (such as weathering), physical damage (such as abrasion), chemical attack. more

Title: Development of design codes   (456)
Short description: The first design code for concrete structures was introduced in 1934. more

Title: Development of plain concrete bridges   (585)
Short description: Gariel, Coignet and then Monier built concrete arches (without reinforcement) in continental Europe in the 1850s. more

Title: Development of precast concrete bridges   (588)
Short description: It is uncertain when precast concrete was introduced into the UK but early applications revolved around railway footbridges, with the Southern Railway leading the way at Oxshott, Surrey (1908) and Exeter (1923). more

Title: Development of prestressed concrete bridges   (587)
Short description: The outstanding feature of concrete bridges both during and after the Second World War was the advent of prestressed concrete, used to rebuild the many bridges that had been destroyed, especially in Continental Europe. more

Title: Development of reinforced concrete bridges   (586)
Short description: The use of reinforced concrete in the UK probably started with the Homersfield Bridge over the River Waverney on the Norfolk/Suffolk border in 1870, when iron was embedded in the concrete. more

Title: Developments in reinforcement and prestressing   (655)
Short description: As Codes and Standards for materials and for design have developed over the years, so the properties of steel reinforcement have improved. more

Title: Diagnosing deterioration   (76)
Short description: As with all materials, concrete deteriorates with time. more

Title: Diagnosis of deterioration.   (290)
Short description: Diagnosis of defects starts with the need to identify the type of defect, classification of the cause, assessment of its extent, development to date, likely future progress, and its effects on the structural stability of the member or structure concerned. more

Title: Diamond drill   (743)
Short description: Diamond drilling is used when precise circular cuts are needed, to create openings for example, for plumbing, electrical and heating/ventilation installations. more

Title: Diamond wire saw   (746)
Short description: The method of setting up is similar to that of the track saw (see separate entry) but with the saw blade replaced by a grooved 800 mm diameter pulley wheel to take the diamond wire, which is passed over any number of small idler pulleys to the surface being cut. more

Title: Diaphragm walls   (374)
Short description: Diaphragm walls are a used to construct retaining walls for deep basements, underpasses and the like, with the walls being constructed before excavation. more

Title: Direct measurement of concrete permeability by flow   (991)
Short description: For the direct measurement of the permeability of concrete by the flow method, a test cell is required that is similar, in principle, to the modified triaxial cells used in standard soil and rock mechanics tests. more

Title: Dispensing admixtures   (485)
Short description: Admixtures are added to concrete in small dosages hence accurate dispensing is important. more

Title: Domestic (high-rise)   (402)
Short description: High-rise domestic buildings (or tower blocks) have traditionally been built using proprietary precast concrete systems, consisting of walls and floors. more

Title: Domestic (low rise)   (401)
Short description: Concrete is widely used in a variety of applications in low-rise housing, including the foundations, ground-supported floor slabs and suspended slabs. more

Title: Double Tees   (312)
Short description: A Double Tee has a top flange and two webs. more

Title: Drilling and cutting   (740)
Short description: Drilling or cutting of concrete may be required for a number of reasons. more

Title: Drying shrinkage cracks   (22)
Short description: Cracks formed by restraint to volume changes caused by loss of excess water. more

Title: Dry-packed materials   (59)
Short description: BS 5838, ´Specification for dry packaged cementitious mixes´: more

Title: Dry-shake toppings   (983)
Short description: Dry-shake toppings are used for horizontal elements such as slabs. more

Title: Duct liners   (235)
Short description: In post-tensioned structures ducts are formed in the concrete through which the strands are passed. more

Title: Dumper trucks   (221)
Short description: Dumper trucks are used for general transport on many construction sites and may be used to move concrete provided the ground is relatively level. more

Title: Durability design   (34)
Short description: A durable concrete structure requires careful attention to all aspects of design, materials and construction. more

Title: Durability of car parks   (634)
Short description: The exposure conditions for car parks in countries where de-icing chemicals are frequently used are much more severe than those for conventional buildings. more

Title: Dust samples   (570)
Short description: Dust samples are frequently obtained directly from structures using a hand-held rotary percussive drill (with a 10, 12 or even 20 mm bit). more

Title: Dusting of concrete   (679)
Short description: Powdering at the surface of a concrete slab is called dusting. more

Title: Early cement   (447)
Short description: Cement is the glue that holds mortar and concrete together and may have a range of different chemical compositions. more

Title: Early concrete   (445)
Short description: The word concrete comes from the Latin ‘concretus’ meaning grown together or compounded. more

Title: Early-age thermal crack control   (839)
Short description: Early-age thermal cracking occurs when the tensile strain, arising from either restrained thermal contraction or a temperature differential within the concrete section, exceeds the tensile strain capacity of the concrete. more

Title: Effect of induced vibration   (724)
Short description: When concrete repairs are carried out close to a source of vibration, for example on a bridge deck with traffic still running on an adjacent carriageway, there may be concerns that the vibrations may affect the concrete properties. more

Title: Electrical conductivity   (996)
Short description: Electrical conductivity is important in some specific applications such as railway sleepers (where resistivity can affect signalling systems) or in structures where concrete is used for protection from stray currents. more

Title: Electrical Current Flow or Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT)   (988)
Short description: This method is described in AASHTO T 277–831 "Rapid Determination of the Chloride Permeability of Concrete" and ASTM C1202. more

Title: Embodied CO2   (814)
Short description: more

Title: EN 1504: Part 4 to 6   (502)
Short description: BS EN 1504, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures: more

Title: EN 1504: Parts 1 to 3   (501)
Short description: BS EN 1504, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures: more

Title: EN 1504: Parts 7 to 10   (504)
Short description: BS EN 1504, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures: more

Title: Encapsulating waste   (771)
Short description: Some liquid toxic wastes (such as those containing metals with low organic contents arising from metal finishing and plating processes) can be treated with cement. more

Title: Enhancing the capacity of concrete bridges   (915)
Short description: The increasing demands placed on the UK bridge stock during the last decade, including the introduction of 40 tonne vehicles and a robust motorway widening programme, caused a major re-evaluation of bridge strengthening. more

Title: Entrained air - BS 8500 requirements   (1013)
Short description: The minimum specified entained air content depends on the maximum aggreate size and, since the publication of BS 8500-1: more

Title: Environmental aspects   (77)
Short description: Environmental aspects cover the impacts on the environment of the production process (including extraction of raw materials, processing, storage, transportation etc) both of the constituent materials of concrete and the concrete product itself. more

Title: Environmental deterioration   (274)
Short description: The main environmental deterioration effects on concrete stem from weathering, freeze/thaw, and fatigue from thermal movement caused by variations in temperature. more

Title: Environmental Impact of Aggregates   (148)
Short description: Aggregates form the major part of concrete and are derived from many types of rock. more

Title: Environmental impact of Formwork   (199)
Short description: Formwork is an essential part of concrete construction as it provides the mould in which an element is cast. more

Title: Environmental questions   (698)
Short description: This is a wide ranging subject area which covers mineral extraction and processing through to construction issues, building energy consumption, demolition and recycling. more

Title: Equipment and plant   (78)
Short description: A wide range of equipment and plant is required to mix concrete, transport it, place it in the formwork, compact and finish it, whether built in situ or precast. more

Title: Erection & dismantling   (266)
Short description: Falsework should be designed and detailed so that it can be erected and dismantled without compromising the safety of operatives and/or the permanent structure. more

Title: Erection of precast concrete cladding   (606)
Short description: The Code of practice for the safe erection of precast concrete cladding, prepared by the Architectural Cladding Association, gives general guidance on all aspects of the design and construction process as they relate to safety. more

Title: Erection of precast concrete flooring   (607)
Short description: The Code of practice for the safe erection of precast concrete flooring and associated components, published by the Precast Flooring Federation, gives general guidance on all aspects of the design and construction process as they relate to safety. more

Title: Erection of precast concrete frameworks   (605)
Short description: The Code of practice for the safe erection of precast concrete frameworks, prepared by the Structural Precast Association, gives general guidance on all aspects of the design and construction process as they relate to safety. more

Title: Erosion protection   (326)
Short description: There are a variety of precast blocks that are suitable for erosion protection, for river banks and similar applications. more

Title: Estimating the quantity of dry-blended concrete   (439)
Short description: When concrete is to be mixed on site rather than ordered from a ready-mixed concrete supplier, an estimate of the materials requirement is necessary. more

Title: Estimation of concrete volume requirement   (441)
Short description: To estimate the quantity of concrete required for simple projects such as slabs and paths. more

Title: European standards for design   (407)
Short description: Common European Standards are being prepared to cover all aspects of design. more

Title: European Standards for loadings   (408)
Short description: Common European Standards have been prepared to cover all aspects of design. more

Title: Example of U value calculation   (598)
Short description: The example uses the following formulae. more

Title: Excess or added water to concrete   (851)
Short description: The key to achieving durable and quality concrete is the control of the constituent materials, both physical properties and quantities. more

Title: Expanded Linings   (321)
Short description: Expanded tunnel linings were first patented in the late 1940s. more

Title: Expanded Polystyrene   (340)
Short description: Expanded polystyrene can be used as permanent formwork, either to provide thermal insulation, for example, under floors and ground beams, or to form voids in large members. more

Title: External in-situ concrete paving   (870)
Short description: Very large areas of paving are constructed around distribution centres and retail and manufacturing facilities each year. more

Title: External vibrators   (216)
Short description: External vibrators, consisting of an electrically or pneumatically operated motor with an out-of-balance component, are mounted on the formwork. more

Title: Externally bonded FRP – Applications   (613)
Short description: Typical applications for strengthening concrete structures with FRP are listed below. more

Title: Externally bonded FRP - Beams and slabs   (37)
Short description: Carbon fibre composite plates can be used for strengthening beams and slabs. more

Title: Externally bonded FRP - Columns   (597)
Short description: Fibre composites (FRPs) are widely used to strengthen columns. more

Title: Externally bonded FRP - General   (596)
Short description: Externally bonded fibre composite materials (FRPs), consisting of carbon, glass or aramid fibres combined with a suitable resin, are widely used for strengthening concrete structures. more

Title: Externally bonded FRP – Inspection   (612)
Short description: FRP strengthening systems for concrete structures must be correctly specified for the anticipated loadings and environment. more

Title: Fabric (historic)   (659)
Short description: In the past wire fabric was produced from twisted square sections, twin twisted material and plain round drawn wire. more

Title: Fabric Reinforcement   (111)
Short description: Fabric (to BS 4483 Steel fabric for the reinforcement of concrete) consists of high yield steel bars welded together to form a mat. more

Title: Fabrics and Plastic Meshes   (339)
Short description: Fabric bags, for example made from hessian, can sometimes be used as permanent formwork. more

Title: Failures and defects   (80)
Short description: Concrete is not a homogeneous material and will always contain some defects. more

Title: Falsework for concrete   (389)
Short description: For information on falsework (to support the concrete until it has achieved sufficient strength) for in situ construction see main entry ´Falsework´ and subsequent sub-headings. more

Title: Fast construction of concrete bridges   (774)
Short description: Society and the construction industry are continually setting targets where speed is of the essence. more

Title: Fibre concrete   (527)
Short description: Various types of fibre may be added to the concrete to improve its properties, either in the fresh (unhardened) state or in service. more

Title: Fibre reinforced concrete   (844)
Short description: Steel or macro synthetic fibres may be added to the concrete either at the ready-mixed plant or to the mixer truck on site. more

Title: Fibre reinforced floors   (247)
Short description: Over the last ten years, ground-supported floor slabs have been designed and built using steel or polypropylene fibres to enhance concrete properties. more

Title: Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP)   (105)
Short description: FRP reinforcement consists of high strength/high stiffness fibres combined with a suitable resin to form a rod or grid. more

Title: Fibre-reinforced segmental tunnel linings   (845)
Short description: Precast concrete segmental linings have been produced traditionally in both reinforced concrete and plain (unreinforced) concrete. more

Title: Fibres for concrete   (144)
Short description: Various types of fibre can be added to concrete during mixing to modify the plastic and/or hardened concrete properties. more

Title: Fibres for concrete   (775)
Short description: Part 2, Polymer fibres – Definition, specifications and conformity. more

Title: Figg test   (572)
Short description: The Figg test measures water permeability in a 5. more

Title: Filler joist slabs   (739)
Short description: ‘Filler joist’ as an early form of floor slab construction, which was commonly used between about the 1880s and 1920s. more

Title: Finish of concrete.   (176)
Short description: The appearance of concrete cast against formwork will be dictated by a number of factors, including the type and quality of the face of the formwork and the design of the concrete mix. more

Title: Finishes for composite slabs with steel decking   (883)
Short description: It is generally not possible to construct composite slabs to tight level to datum and flatness tolerances due to the deflection of the supporting beams and the flexibility of the steel decking. more

Title: Fire - Codes and standards   (35)
Short description: BS 8110: Part 1 gaves minimum concrete covers and minimum structural dimensions for various fire durations; these are applicable to typical fires in buildings. more

Title: Fire damage   (279)
Short description: Concrete structures are very resistant to fire. more

Title: Fixing reinforcement   (120)
Short description: Individual reinforcing bars are joined together to form the reinforcement cage, generally using tying wire. more

Title: Flat slabs   (847)
Short description: Flat slabs are appropriate for most floor situations and also for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. more

Title: Flexural (bending) cracks   (185)
Short description: Flexural cracks on the sides of a beam start at the tension face and will extend, at most, up to the neutral axis. more

Title: Floated and trowelled finishes   (880)
Short description: Prior to the introduction of power tools, a floated finish was that produced by a large, generally wooden or sometimes metal, hand float moved over the surface when the concrete was still plastic. more

Title: Floor construction tolerances   (780)
Short description: It is impossible to construct a ground supported slab to the exact dimensions as detailed on the construction drawings, as is the case with all construction, dimensional tolerances need to be allowed for in the design and construction processes. more

Title: Floor plates for floor systems (BS EN)   (805)
Short description: BS EN 13747, Precast concrete products – Floor plates for floor systems. more

Title: Floor saw   (829)
Short description: The floor saw is either pushed by the operator or more generally it is a self-propelled unit, powered by either a diesel, petrol engine or electric motor and guided by the operator. more

Title: Floor surface regularity   (621)
Short description: The surface profiles of a ground-supported floor need to be controlled so that departures in the profile from a theoretically perfectly flat plane are limited to an extent appropriate to the planned use of the floor. more

Title: Flooring concrete   (160)
Short description: Concrete for flooring needs to have particular properties to cope with the wear and tear of the traffic, both foot and in particular vehicular. more

Title: Flow table test   (560)
Short description: The flow test is used for high workability concrete (with a slump of more that 175 mm). more

Title: Fly ash or Pulverised fuel ash   (136)
Short description: Fly ash, also known as pulverised fuel ash (pfa) is the ash resulting from the burning of pulverised coal in coal-fired electricity power stations. more

Title: Flying forms   (536)
Short description: Flying forms (or table forms) consist of a pair of steel or aluminium trusses topped with closely spaced joists that support a plywood deck. more

Title: Foamed Concrete   (355)
Short description: Foamed concrete is a highly aerated mortar/paste, typically containing 30 to 80% air bubbles by volume . more

Title: Foamed concrete - Applications   (358)
Short description: Foamed concrete is a versatile material. more

Title: Foamed concrete - Examples of the use   (359)
Short description: Foamed concrete was used for construction of new railway bridge embankments in Colchester to reduce the load imposed on the low strength in-situ ground. more

Title: Foamed concrete - general properties   (357)
Short description: Foamed concrete is not comparable with conventional normal or even lightweight aggregate concrete and should be considered as a unique type of concrete. more

Title: Foamed concrete - Quality control   (356)
Short description: Foamed concrete is produced either by adding a quantity of preformed foam to a mortar or paste directly into a truck mixer or via a special in-line mixer using ready mixed mortar or paste. more

Title: Foamed concrete admixtures   (478)
Short description: Foamed concrete admixtures are surfactants that are diluted with water before passing through a foam generator to produce a stable foam, similar to shaving cream. more

Title: Footfall-induced vibration   (835)
Short description: When people walk on floors, staircases, bridges or other structures they apply dynamic forces that cause the structures to vibrate. more

Title: Form of construction - car parks   (632)
Short description: The structural form of a multi-storey car park will be heavily influenced by the design geometry adopted. more

Title: Form ties   (48)
Short description: more

Title: Formation of thermal contraction cracks   (449)
Short description: If early thermal contraction is restrained, cracking will occur if the restrained strain (or induced stress) exceeds the capacity of the concrete, i. more

Title: Formwork - Demountable   (260)
Short description: In general formwork is removed once the concrete has gained sufficient strength. more

Title: Formwork - Permanent   (259)
Short description: Generally formwork is removed when the concrete has gained adequate strength. more

Title: Formwork for concrete   (388)
Short description: For information on formwork for in situ construction see main category ´Formwork´ and subsequent sub-headings. more

Title: Formwork liners   (984)
Short description: As the name implies, formwork liners are mainly sheet materials which are incapable of withstanding the pressure of fresh concrete without continuous structural support from the formwork. more

Title: Formwork materials   (268)
Short description: A range of materials can be used for form faces and for their immediate support. more

Title: Formwork shape   (345)
Short description: The type of formwork erected will depend on the shape of the element being constructed. more

Title: Free standing retaining walls   (617)
Short description: Precast concrete retaining wall units are used in a range of applications, both permanent and temporary, for retaining soil and other bulk materials. more

Title: Fresh concrete   (177)
Short description: The selection of an appropriate concrete mix for a particular application will need to consider the method of construction as well as the required long-term properties. more

Title: Fresh concrete - British Standards   (63)
Short description: Testing of fresh concrete has largely been superseded by BS EN 12350, Testing fresh concretes. more

Title: Fresh concrete - environmetal aspects   (205)
Short description: The supply of ready-mixed concrete invariably produces some waste materials and water. more

Title: Fresh concrete – European Standards   (637)
Short description: Testing of fresh concrete is covered by various parts of BS EN 12350, Testing fresh concrete, including: more

Title: Fresh concrete testing   (468)
Short description: To gauge the rheological (fluid) properties of fresh concrete a series of tests are available. more

Title: Friction between concrete and sub-base   (1026)
Short description: Friction between the underside of a concrete slab and the sub-base will reduce the slabs capacity to move. more

Title: Friction between elements   (833)
Short description: There may be a requirement to know the coefficient of friction between elements in contact, for example precast units resting on a concrete corbel or structural steel members on a concrete support. more

Title: FRP prestressing tendons   (41)
Short description: FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) prestressing tendons consist of high strength/high stiffness carbon, glass or aramid fibres combined with a suitable resin, generally epoxy-based. more

Title: Fusion bonded epoxy coated steel   (108)
Short description: Fusion bonded epoxy coated steel is standard reinforcing steel covered with a thin coating of fusion bonded epoxy. more

Title: Galvanised steel   (107)
Short description: Galvanised reinforcement will provide some improved corrosion resistance in situations in which carbonation is the main problem. more

Title: Gas in concrete   (145)
Short description: Gases can be deliberately or accidentally incorporated into concrete leaving voids in the hardened concrete. more

Title: General notes on concrete   (2)
Short description: Concrete is characterised by two main states, fresh and hardened, which in simple terms describe the mobility (or lack of mobility) of the material. more

Title: Geometric requirements   (633)
Short description: Parking arrangements should be designed to allow drivers to manoeuvre easily and safely and, where appropriate, to segregate vehicles from pedestrian areas and routes. more

Title: Geothermal piles   (922)
Short description: more

Title: Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete (GRC)   (344)
Short description: Glass fibre reinforced concrete (often erroneously referred to as glass reinforced cement) was originally developed as an alternative to asbestos cladding sheets. more

Title: Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GRP)   (337)
Short description: Glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP) are used in a range of construction applications. more

Title: Glass fibres   (551)
Short description: A range of different types of glass fibres is manufactured and used in a variety of applications. more

Title: Glassfibre reinforced concrete (GRC)   (100)
Short description: GRC (Glassfibre Reinforced Concrete) is the name given to the material produced when Alkali Resistant (AR) fibres are added as reinforcement to a mortar or concrete mix. more

Title: Glassfibre reinforced concrete manufacture   (101)
Short description: GRC components can be manufactured by various methods but the two most common are Simultaneous Spray-up and Cast Premix. more

Title: Glossary of concrete terms   (29)
Short description: There are many glossaries and dictionaries of standard terms of the construction industry. more

Title: Grit blasted surface finish   (728)
Short description: Grit blasting can produce a finish similar to acid etching (see separate entry Acid etched finish) or it can be used as a more aggressive means of removing the laitance and exposing the coarse aggregate. more

Title: Ground granulated blastfurnace slag   (135)
Short description: Ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) is the slag from iron producing blastfurnaces that is rapidly quenched in water and then ground into a powder. more

Title: Ground supported floors   (154)
Short description: Ground-supported concrete floors are used in many types of building, ranging from simple houses through to schools, factories, and very large warehouses. more

Title: Grout for prestressing tendons   (886)
Short description: European Standards have been published that cover various aspects of the grouting of tendons, as follows: more

Title: Grout loss   (978)
Short description: This appears as steps at the surface accompanied by grout loss. more

Title: Grouting of post-tensioned tendons   (757)
Short description: The grouting of the ducts surrounding post-tensioning tendons provides the necessary mechanical connection to transfer the stresses between the tendons and the concrete and also protects the tendons from corrosion. more

Title: Guide to reinforcing steels   (734)
Short description: UK CARES are publishing a series of information sheets on various aspects of reinforcement production and use. more

Title: Half cell potential   (443)
Short description: Corrosion of reinforcing steel is an electro-chemical process and the behaviour of the steel can be characterised by measuring its half-cell potential. more

Title: Handling and storage of reinforcement   (119)
Short description: Care must be taken to avoid damage to bundles of reinforcement during off-loading. more

Title: Hardened concrete - environmental aspects   (206)
Short description: Concrete (and other building materials) can be crushed, graded and recycled as coarse aggregate in new concrete if deleterious materials (such as steel reinforcement, timber etc) can be separated and removed. more

Title: Hardened concrete – European Standards   (638)
Short description: Testing of hardened concrete is covered by BS EN 12390, Testing hardened concrete, including: more

Title: Hardened concrete testing - Non destructive   (262)
Short description:  more

Title: Hardened concrete testing on specimens - British Standards   (261)
Short description: Testing of hardened concrete has largely been superseded by various Parts of BS EN 12390, Testing hardened concrete and BS EN 12504, Testing concrete in structures. more

Title: Hardened concrete testing other than strength   (469)
Short description: There are many tests available to assess the hardened properties of concrete. more

Title: Headed reinforcement   (897)
Short description: Headed reinforcing bars are standard lengths of reinforcement with heads (rectangular steel plates) attached at one or both ends, generally by means of friction welding. more

Title: Healing dermatitis   (604)
Short description: Dermatitis generally only involves the superficial parts of the skin. more

Title: Health - definition.   (603)
Short description: In the context of this section, health refers to the physical well being of an operative rather than the measures required for his protection i. more

Title: Health advice   (602)
Short description: There a number of health risks with concrete. more

Title: Health and safety   (95)
Short description: The process of designing concrete structures to recognised Standards, codes and regulations will ensure that they are structurally safe, i. more

Title: Health and Safety - CDM   (67)
Short description: Under the Construction (Design & Management) Regulations, generally known as the CDM Regulations designers have a duty to provide information on the significant risks in the design that cannot be avoided. more

Title: Health and safety at work   (753)
Short description: The The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996,  apply to and in relation to construction work carried out by a person at work. more

Title: Heating concrete using hot water   (935)
Short description: more

Title: Heavyweight concrete   (785)
Short description: Heavyweight concrete uses heavy natural aggregates such as barites or magnetite or manufactured aggregates such as iron or lead shot. more

Title: High Alumina Cement   (795)
Short description: High Alumina Cement (HAC) differs from Portland cement, being composed calcium aluminates rather than calcium silicates. more

Title: High strength columns and normal strength slabs   (680)
Short description: The economic design of a high-rise frame building may call for high strength concrete in the columns and a lower strength in the floor slabs. more

Title: High strength concrete   (528)
Short description: , although higher strengths have been achieved and used. more

Title: High Strength Concrete   (365)
Short description: The design approaches given in the now superceded codes such as BS 8110 and BS 8007, were based on ‘normal’ concrete strengths. more

Title: High tensile bars   (231)
Short description: As an alternative to wires or strand, high tensile steel bars may be used. more

Title: High workability concrete   (149)
Short description: A concrete that can be readily compacted is termed ´workable´. more

Title: High Yield Steel   (104)
Short description: and is designated as Grade 500 in BS 4449, Specification for carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete. more

Title: Highway Authorities Product Approval Scheme   (547)
Short description: HAPAS (the Highway Authorities Product Approval Scheme) was set up by the Highways Agency (HA), now Highways England, the County Surveyors Society (CCS) and the British Board of Agrément (BBA), with the objective of developing national approval arrangements for innovative products, materials and systems for use in highways and related areas. more

Title: Historic literature on concrete   (995)
Short description: From 1897, (the first complete reinforced concrete building  in the UK) there was an emergence and development of a genre of specialist books on concrete at a time when reinforced concrete was a new technology. more

Title: Historic non-traditional houses   (772)
Short description: The term ‘non-traditional housing’ may be used to describe all the various methods of house building that have moved away from the traditional ‘bricks and mortar’. more

Title: Historical information on buildings and structures   (804)
Short description: When inspecting an old building, information such as the materials used and the form of construction may not be readily available. more

Title: History of concrete   (82)
Short description: A form of concrete was used as early as 7000 BC. more

Title: Hollow Clay Pots   (342)
Short description: At one time hollow clay pots were used to form the voids between ribs in trough slabs. more

Title: Hollow core slabs (BS EN)   (796)
Short description: The requirements for precast hollow core slabs made from reinforced or prestressed normal weight concrete, are given in: more

Title: Hollow-core slabs   (311)
Short description: Hollow-core floor slabs are precast prestressed concrete elements with continuous voids provided to reduce self-weight and achieve structural efficiency. more

Title: Honeycombing of concrete.   (454)
Short description: Honeycombing is the term used to describe areas of the surface that are coarse and stony. more

Title: Horizontal panel formwork systems   (858)
Short description: The components of lightweight panel formwork systems are engineered to give robust, easy to handle solutions capable of dealing with both regular and irregular formwork areas. more

Title: Horizontal slipforming   (395)
Short description: Horizontal slip-forming is a method of constructing continuous concrete elements, such as kerbs, drainage channels and safety barriers. more

Title: Hot weather concreting   (391)
Short description: A high ambient temperature increases the temperature of the fresh concrete, resulting in more rapid hydration of the cement and leading to accelerated setting. more

Title: House and garden   (366)
Short description: Concrete is not just for large structures built by specialist contractors. more

Title: How much reinforcement??   (114)
Short description: Calculations for determining the amount of reinforcement required in a concrete member (e. more

Title: Hybrid construction   (537)
Short description: Hybrid construction is generally taken to be the combination of in situ concrete with precast concrete units, such as in situ columns with precast floor slabs and vice versa. more

Title: Hydraulic bursting   (748)
Short description: This is a method of silent demolition that uses a hydraulic power unit, powered by electricity, diesel or petrol. more

Title: Hydraulic crushing   (749)
Short description: This equipment can only be used when a free edge is available. more

Title: Hydrodemolition of concrete.   (867)
Short description: Hydrodemolition provides an efficient method of cutting and removing concrete. more

Title: Identity testing for strength in accordance with BS EN 206 and BS 8500-1   (951)
Short description: more

Title: Identity testing of fresh concrete for properties other than strength   (950)
Short description: The responsibility for demonstration of conformity of concrete supplied in accordance with the Standard for concrete, BS EN 206, is placed upon the concrete supplier. more

Title: Imperial bar sizes   (658)
Short description: Before metrication, the generally available size range for both round and square or chamfered square bars was ¼ inch to 1½ inches in the sizes shown below: more

Title: Importance of aggregate grading   (424)
Short description: Ideally coarse and fine aggregate should be graded in such a way as to minimise the voidage. more

Title: Imprinted concrete paving   (752)
Short description: Imprinted (or Pattern Imprinted or Stamped) concrete is a popular decorative technique for driveways, patios and paths. more

Title: Improving U values   (595)
Short description: Many ways of improving U-values of cement based materials are feasible. more

Title: In service cracks   (183)
Short description: Reinforced concrete is designed on the assumption that the concrete has no significant strength in tension and that all tensile stresses will be carried by the steel reinforcement. more

Title: In service deterioration - chemical   (699)
Short description: There will be some signs of deterioration on any structures in service. more

Title: In service deterioration - environmental   (700)
Short description: There will be some signs of deterioration on any structures in service. more

Title: In service deterioration - loading   (701)
Short description: There will be some signs of deterioration on any structures in service. more

Title: In service deterioration - materials   (522)
Short description: There will be some signs of deterioration on any structures in service. more

Title: In situ Beams   (352)
Short description: Many structures (e. more

Title: In situ Columns   (353)
Short description: Many structures will require in situ columns. more

Title: In situ concrete suspended floors   (244)
Short description: An in situ concrete suspended floor is one constructed with reinforced concrete and designed to carry its own weight and any imposed a loading, spanning between supporting members in a structure. more

Title: In situ linings   (370)
Short description: Tunnels cut through hard rock may be lined with concrete cast in situ. more

Title: In situ methods   (180)
Short description: Most construction is carried out in situ. more

Title: In situ safety barriers   (625)
Short description: There are a number of different profiles for cast in situ safety barriers, providing varying levels of containment. more

Title: In situ tests – European Standards   (639)
Short description:  more

Title: Incremental launching - Applications   (383)
Short description: The advantages and disadvantages of incremental launching are given below. more

Title: Incremental launching - General   (382)
Short description: In situations where the deck is straight (or with constant curvature) and there is a requirement to avoid providing false work in the spanned area, incremental launching may be appropriate. more

Title: Industrial surface preparation equipment   (789)
Short description: The removal of existing floor coverings, for example, sheet vinyl, linoleum etc. more

Title: Influence of cement and sand on colour   (878)
Short description: Colour variation in concrete is inherent to the constituent materials. more

Title: Initial surface absorption   (571)
Short description: The initial surface absorption test (ISAT) uses a plastic cap sealed to the concrete surface using modelling clay. more

Title: In-service environmental performance - buildings   (204)
Short description: In commercial buildings, concrete offers a pleasant, comfortable and secure working environment, with suitable lighting levels and thermal control combined with the design and construction requirements of the building’s structure and external envelope. more

Title: In-service environmental performance - housing   (203)
Short description: In UK domestic buildings, about 65% of the total energy used is in space heating, followed by 22% for hot water. more

Title: In-service performance – Leaching   (825)
Short description: Concrete is a conglomerate of aggregates, cement and chemical admixtures. more

Title: In-situ concrete   (360)
Short description: This is fresh or unhardened concrete that is placed into suitable moulds in the position in which it will be used. more

Title: In-situ Concrete   (332)
Short description: Previously cast in-situ concrete is often used as part of the formwork for subsequent concrete pours and the older and newer concretes may be required to act compositely. more

Title: In-situ concrete buildings   (397)
Short description: This section relates to commercial and industrial insitu concrete building construction. more

Title: In-situ core strength compared to standard cube strength   (807)
Short description: There is no unique relationship between the strength of in-situ concrete, obtained from a core taken from a structure, and that of a standard cured cube cast from the same concrete. more

Title: Insitu tests - British Standards   (64)
Short description: Testing of concrete in situ has largely been superseded by various Parts of BS EN 12504, Testing concrete in structures. more

Title: In-situ to precast connections   (400)
Short description: There are many situations in which a connection is required between a precast concrete element and in situ concrete. more

Title: In-situ, precast and tilt-up concrete walls   (249)
Short description: Concrete can be cast in-situ or precast between vertical formwork to produce walls that carry vertical and/or horizontal loads in structures. more

Title: Inspection and maintenance   (577)
Short description: When correctly designed, specified and constructed, concrete structures should require very little maintenance. more

Title: Insulating concrete formwork   (869)
Short description: Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF) is an innovative modern method of construction which combines the inherent strength of concrete with the excellent thermal insulation properties of polystyrene to produce cost-effective and durable structures. more

Title: Insulation and U values   (594)
Short description: Dense concrete has a large thermal mass and it is not a particularly good insulator. more

Title: Integral bridges   (589)
Short description: Integral bridges can be defined as bridges without joints. more

Title: Integration of building services   (892)
Short description: Structural engineers and building services engineers need to work together very closely to ensure that the decisions made by the structural engineer will suit the building’s comfort requirements. more

Title: Jacked box underbridges   (866)
Short description: Large concrete boxes can be installed beneath existing railway or highway infrastructure to provide new underbridges with little or no disruption to traffic flows, unlike the traditional cut and cover methods. more

Title: Joints and connections   (182)
Short description: It is often impossible to pour large areas (or volumes) of concrete without interruption hence construction joints are required. more

Title: Joints in external paving   (873)
Short description: Tensile and compressive stresses will be induced in concrete by restrained thermal and moisture-related contraction and expansion effects. more

Title: Jump form construction   (535)
Short description: Jump forms are one method for the construction of the cores (that house the lifts, staircases etc. more

Title: Jump form systems   (860)
Short description: Generally jump form systems (taken to include systems often described as ‘climbing form’) comprise the formwork and working platforms for cleaning and fixing the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. more

Title: K Slump   (968)
Short description: The K Slump test is covered by ASTM C 1362. more

Title: Kicker concrete strength for walls   (1024)
Short description: Should kickers be cast with the same strength concrete as the walls? more

Title: Kickerless Construction   (1025)
Short description: Kickerless construction for positioning vertical formwork off a slab has the following advantages over the construction of a traditional kicker against which the vertical forms are clamped: more

Title: Laboratory testing   (166)
Short description: Concrete´s constituent materials and concrete in the fresh and hardened state can be subjected to a variety of tests to ascertain physical, chemical and mechanical properties. more

Title: Large pour area ground-supported floors   (156)
Short description: There are two major benefits from constructing floors using large area pours and using sawn grooves to form induced joints, these are speed of output and the avoidance of the many formed joints necessary when strip construction is used. more

Title: Large volume concrete pours   (953)
Short description: In the past large volume concrete pours with low cement content was associated largely with dams to provide weight rather than load-bearing capacity. more

Title: Lattice girder slabs   (310)
Short description: Lattice girder slabs act as permanent formwork and as precast soffits for robust, high capacity composite floor slabs. more

Title: Life cycle assessment/analysis of concrete   (769)
Short description: Sustainability has become an important consideration for the construction industry. more

Title: Lift lines   (970)
Short description: Lift lines (sometimes referred to as pour lines) appear as colour changes along the boundaries between successive lifts within a pour. more

Title: Lift slab construction   (387)
Short description: Lift slab is a form of construction in which all the slabs in a building are cast on top of each other at ground level, jacked up the columns to their final level and then fixed to the columns. more

Title: Lifting of concrete.   (209)
Short description: On all but the smallest construction sites, lifting equipment (either mobile or fixed) is used to handle all the components required for constructing reinforced concrete, that is the formwork and falsework, the reinforcement and the concrete itself. more

Title: Lightweight aggregate concrete   (13)
Short description: This forms the bulk of lightweight concrete on site and can be used as a structural material. more

Title: Lightweight Aggregate Concrete - Materials   (202)
Short description: By using lightweight aggregate concrete, the weight of the structure can be reduced and less concrete is used, resulting in smaller foundations. more

Title: Lightweight aggregates   (849)
Short description: In the UK the most commonly used lightweight aggregate is LYTAG, a sintered fly ash, also known as pulverised fuel ash (pfa). more

Title: Lightweight concrete   (12)
Short description: depending on the materials used. more

Title: Lightweight concrete - Batching and placing   (14)
Short description: Batching is similar to that of normal concrete, generally from ready-mixed concrete outlets. more

Title: Lignite in concrete.   (515)
Short description: Lignite is a soft, weak, black or brown substance, akin to coal, naturally occurring in some aggregate sources. more

Title: Lime leaching   (520)
Short description: Leaching of lime compounds can lead to the formation of calcium carbonate or calcium sulphate on the surface of the concrete; this is known as ‘efflorescence’. more

Title: Limestone fines as an addition to cement   (925)
Short description: more

Title: Linear polarisation resistance   (619)
Short description: Measuring the polarisation resistance of reinforcing steel is one of the few methods of assessing corrosion rate, with the current density being related to the rate of loss of metal. more

Title: Liquid Nitrogen spillage on concrete   (928)
Short description: more

Title: Loadings - British Standards   (49)
Short description: The main Standard for loadings applied to structures was BS 6399 in three parts. more

Title: Loadings - European Standards   (293)
Short description: Common European Standards have been prepared to cover all aspects of design. more

Title: Local surface rust staining   (452)
Short description: Localised rust coloured stains on the concrete surface may be caused by small amounts of contaminants in the aggregate, such as pyrites. more

Title: Macro synthetic fibres   (767)
Short description: Macro synthetic fibres, sometimes known as ‘structural’ synthetic fibres, are made from a blend of polymers and were originally developed to provide an alternative to steel fibres in some applications. more

Title: Macro-synthetic-fibre-reinforced concrete   (842)
Short description: Macro synthetic fibres are typically used in structural concrete as replacement for nominal bar or fabric reinforcement; they do not replace structural steel  and can not be part of the design in accordance with these Eurocodes. more

Title: Magnesite (Magnesium Oxychloride) Flooring   (820)
Short description: Magnesite flooring is not commonly used at the current time but was very popular for domestic applications in the period 1920 to 1940, and for Local Authority housing between 1945 and 1960. more

Title: Magnesium oxide-based cements   (1003)
Short description: The magnesium oxide-based cements that are currently manufactured or are under development are derived from two distinct chemical/mineralogical forms (and associated processes): magnesium carbonates (e. more

Title: Maintenance of external paving   (875)
Short description: Correctly designed and constructed external concrete pavements should have a long service life and require only limited maintenance. more

Title: Maintenance requirements   (86)
Short description: When correctly designed, specified and constructed concrete structures require little maintenance. more

Title: Making cubes on site   (558)
Short description: Cubes should be made in accordance with BS EN 12390-2, Testing hardened concrete. more

Title: Manholes & Chambers   (329)
Short description: Circular chamber sections (to BS 5911: more

Title: Manufacturing improvements for Portland cement   (193)
Short description: Actions being taken by manufacturers to reduce environmental aspects include the reduction of primary raw material needs by increased use of by-products from other industries and the use of waste products as alternative fuels (oil, solvents, tyres). more

Title: Marine use of concrete.   (173)
Short description: The major traditional use of concrete in the marine environment is for coastal protection and for the construction of docks and harbours. more

Title: Masonry - Acoustic properties   (712)
Short description: The requirements for the resistance to the passage of sound are contained in Approved Document E of The Building Regulations. more

Title: Masonry - Aircrete block manufacture   (707)
Short description: Aircrete blocks are produced by mixing of Fly ash, also known as pulversided fuel ash (pfa), and/or finely ground sand with cement and/or lime slurry into which a small quantity of aluminium powder is added. more

Title: Masonry - Ancillary applications   (719)
Short description: Concrete masonry can be used in other applications other than walling. more

Title: Masonry - Concrete block and brick manufacture   (706)
Short description: The vast majority of concrete blocks are produced by one of two different manufacturing processes. more

Title: Masonry - Construction   (720)
Short description: Block and brick construction should comply with the relevant clauses of BS 5628-3 Code of practice for the use of masonry - materials and components, design and workmanship and BS 8000 : more

Title: Masonry - Densities   (709)
Short description: Aggregate blocks come in two types. more

Title: Masonry - Durability   (713)
Short description: Generally, concrete masonry is a durable and robust product that can be used for internal applications including the inner leaf of cavity walls. more

Title: Masonry - Finishes   (717)
Short description: Certain types of concrete masonry can be left unfinished while others will readily accept an applied finish, provided it is suitable for application to an alkaline background and permits a degree of moisture vapour movement through the construction. more

Title: Masonry - Fire resistance   (714)
Short description: Concrete masonry (except that containing combustible material) is classed as a non-combustible and has a Class 0 spread of flame rating. more

Title: Masonry - Mortar   (718)
Short description: Mortar provides an important function in the construction of a robust, structural load bearing and durable concrete masonry wall system. more

Title: Masonry - Movement   (716)
Short description: Movement control is an important aspect in achieving a visually acceptable masonry wall. more

Title: Masonry - Resistance to moisture   (715)
Short description: The ability of concrete masonry walls to resist rain penetration will depend on the wall construction, block type and exposure. more

Title: Masonry - Sizes & strengths   (710)
Short description: Aggregate blocks are normally available in two face sizes (440 x 215 mm or 390 x 190 mm) in a range of thickness from 75 mm to 215 mm. more

Title: Masonry - Thermal properties   (711)
Short description: The requirements for the conservation of fuel and power are given in the Building Regulations Approved Documents L1 (dwellings) and L2 (buildings other than dwellings). more

Title: Masonry - Workmanship   (721)
Short description: Masonry units should be laid on a full bed of mortar and the ‘perpends’ substantially filled (except in the case where weep hole are required). more

Title: Masonry as formwork   (336)
Short description: Masonry (natural stone, concrete or clay) can be used as permanent vertical formwork for beams and walls. more

Title: Masts and poles (BS EN)   (762)
Short description: The requirements for precast masts or poles (either all of a piece or composed of separate elements) of reinforced or prestressed concrete are covered by: more

Title: Materials for falsework   (263)
Short description: A range of materials may be used for falsework. more

Title: Materials, products and systems accreditation   (543)
Short description: There are various schemes for the accreditation of materials, products and systems. more

Title: Maximum cover to steel reinforcement   (1036)
Short description: more

Title: Measures to reduce cracking   (891)
Short description: The planning of a building to accommodate movement must be considered at the earliest possible stage of the design process. more

Title: Measuring gas permeability   (986)
Short description: Gas permeability tests measure the flow of a gas into the concrete under the action of a pressure gradient. more

Title: Methods and mixing   (421)
Short description: The behaviour of fresh and hardened concrete is significantly related to the composition and so it should be possible to choose the later to satisfy the former. more

Title: Methods and mixing small quantities by hand   (428)
Short description: Concrete can be mixed in one of two ways for household projects: more

Title: Mild Steel   (103)
Short description: and was designated as Grade 250 in BS 4449 Specification for carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete. more

Title: Mix design   (87)
Short description: The process of mix design involves the selection of appropriate constituent materials and proportioning them to produce the required concrete properties. more

Title: Mix design assessment   (425)
Short description: Mixing can be carried out on a small scale (a few litres in a laboratory) through to 6000 litres at a ready mixed concrete or site batch plant. more

Title: Mixing small quantities by mechanical mixer   (427)
Short description: Concrete can be mixed in one of two ways for household projects: more

Title: Mixing water for concrete   (642)
Short description: The standard for the requirements of the quality of water to be used in mixing concrete is BS EN 1008, Mixing water for concrete. more

Title: Mobile batching plants   (213)
Short description: Mobile batching plants are suitable for small quantities of concrete (e. more

Title: Modular bridges   (914)
Short description: A modular precast concrete system has been developed, which consists of relatively light 2. more

Title: Modular Walls   (318)
Short description: Various precast modular wall systems are available, consisting of individual concrete blocks that lock together (without the need for mortar) to form a retaining wall. more

Title: Moisture in new concrete floors   (778)
Short description: Moisture in new concrete floors can affect the long-term serviceability of finishes and possibly the building maintenance and operating costs. more

Title: Mortar and grout   (88)
Short description: Grout is a mixture of cement and water, generally sufficiently fluid to be poured without segregation of the materials. more

Title: Mortar repairs   (494)
Short description: ) that are placed by hand. more

Title: Mortars for masonry   (609)
Short description: BS EN 998, Specification for mortar for masonry: more

Title: Mortars, screeds and grouts   (65)
Short description: Mortars, screeds and grouts are covered by: more

Title: Moulds for precast   (384)
Short description: Standards precast concrete units are generally formed in steel moulds, that are suitable for multiple, repetitive use. more

Title: Movements in car parks   (635)
Short description: Structural elements of car parks are susceptible to movement both during and after construction. more

Title: Multi-storey car parks   (631)
Short description: Concrete is widely used the construction of multi-storey car parks, either as the principal structural material or compositely with steel. more

Title: Municipal solid waste incinerator ash (MSWIA) cements   (1005)
Short description: Municipal solid waste incinerator ash (MSWIA) can be used in one of two ways to make a novel cement. more

Title: Natural cement   (375)
Short description: Cement Rock is the term given to a limestone containing up to 25% clayey (argillaceous) material. more

Title: Near-surface mounted reinforcement   (457)
Short description: The technique of near-surface mounted reinforcement for strengthening concrete structures is currently being developed as an alternative to externally bonded fibre composite materials. more

Title: Near-surface strength tests   (462)
Short description: There are various near-to-surface test methods which can be used to assess strength. more

Title: Negative aggregate transparency   (972)
Short description: Negative aggregate transparency can occur in formed concrete when there is segregation of fines and associated water between the form-face and the coarse aggregate. more

Title: No-fines concrete   (16)
Short description: This form of lightweight concrete is generally a crushed rock or gravel of 20 mm single size aggregate (10/20) coated in a cement slurry with no fine aggregate addition. more

Title: No-fines concrete: Fixings   (903)
Short description: The no-fines (voided concrete without sand) construction technique for buildings is not particularly suited to drilling of holes to provide adequate fixings. more

Title: Noise in construction   (801)
Short description: Exposure to loud noise can cause permanent hearing damage. more

Title: Non-ferrous metals in concrete   (788)
Short description: Copper is generally immune from attack by caustic alkalis and not affected by contact with lime or calcium hydroxide. more

Title: Non-structural concrete   (5)
Short description: Although concrete is seen by many as a single material, it in fact can be produced with many variable characteristics including strength, fluidity, colour and weight. more

Title: Normal plasticising admixtures   (470)
Short description: Normal plasticising admixtures reduce the amount of water needed to achieve a given workability in plastic concrete without significantly affecting the air content or setting characteristics. more

Title: Normal weight concrete   (6)
Short description: Although concrete is seen by many as a single material, it can be produced with many variable characteristics including strength, fluidity, colour and weight. more

Title: Off site production   (723)
Short description: Off-site production technologies offer the potential for reductions in cost, shorter programme times, fewer defects and fewer accidents on site. more

Title: One-Pass Linings   (320)
Short description: A One-pass lining consist of solid reinforced concrete segments manufactured in accordance with the Civil Engineering Specification for the water Industry. more

Title: Organisations etc A to C   (410)
Short description: ACIFC. more

Title: Organisations etc D to H   (416)
Short description: DBERR. more

Title: Organisations etc I to Z   (411)
Short description: ICorr. more

Title: Ornamental concrete.   (257)
Short description: Concrete is used to produce ornaments for gardens etc, such as statues, water features and garden furniture. more

Title: Other textured finishes   (882)
Short description: Turf drag surface finish is produced by trailing an inverted section of artificial turf across the surface on a device that controls time and rate. more

Title: Overloading of structures   (276)
Short description: While the design safety factors will enable a structure to accept some measure of overload structural damage will result from frequent small scale overloading or any major overloading. more

Title: Overview of mix design   (423)
Short description: In the past mix design was achieve by trial and error. more

Title: Pad and Strip Foundations   (347)
Short description: Pad foundations are used to support individual or multiple columns, spreading the load to the ground below. more

Title: Parameters for mix design   (426)
Short description: The selection of concrete proportions for a economical structural concrete should be based on test data or experience with the materials actually to be used. more

Title: Paved area restrictions   (905)
Short description: From 1 October 2008 new rules apply for householders wanting to pave over their front gardens. more

Title: Permeability testing   (901)
Short description: The permeability of concrete to liquids, ions and gases is of direct relevance to both durable concrete and to leak-resistant concrete for containment. more

Title: Petrographic tests   (575)
Short description: Petrographic testing is the use of microscopes to examine samples of rock or concrete to determine their mineralogical and chemical characteristics. more

Title: Phenolphthalein   (1035)
Short description: To test for depth of carbonation into a concrete surface, a solution of phenolphthalein indicator can be applied. more

Title: Photographic concrete   (982)
Short description: A very special surface finish can be achieved using a photographic image where the black and white picture is represented on a plastic form liner by pixels / dots of retarder. more

Title: Physical deterioration   (275)
Short description: 1. more

Title: Physical salt weathering   (283)
Short description: Salt weathering is designated in the literature as ‘physical salt weathering’ to distinguish it from the effects of chlorides within concrete that may initiate reinforcement corrosion. more

Title: Pigments for concrete   (143)
Short description: Pigments are mixed into the concrete to produce colours, other than the normal grey colour. more

Title: Pile cap design   (1019)
Short description: Guidance on the design of caps for groups of piles has been limited over the years. more

Title: Pile Foundations   (348)
Short description: Where the bearing capacity of the soil is poor or imposed loads are very heavy, pile foundations are required. more

Title: Pile-supported floors   (620)
Short description: If ground conditions are poor, such that they are inadequate for a ground-supported floor, usually due to unacceptably high potential settlement values, the floor may be constructed on closely spaced piles to transfer the load to firmer strata. more

Title: Pipes and drainage (BS EN)   (615)
Short description: The British Standards for pipes and drainage are being replaced by European standards. more

Title: Pipes and drainage (BS)   (28)
Short description: BS 5911, Precast concrete pipes, fittings and ancillary products. more

Title: Placing concrete   (532)
Short description: Before placing concrete, the formwork and reinforcement should be checked to make sure that they are clean and free of any detritis, such as ends of tying wire. more

Title: Plant and equipment   (178)
Short description: For all but the smallest jobs, plant such as pumps, cranes and skips, will be required to place the concrete in position. more

Title: Plastic settlement cracks   (19)
Short description: Cracks caused when the settlement of fresh concrete is restrained by reinforcement or formwork. more

Title: Plastic shrinkage cracks   (18)
Short description: Cracks caused by excessive drying from exposed surfaces Plastic shrinkage cracks can form in young concrete, within the first few hours after placing. more

Title: Plucking of surface   (976)
Short description: Normally occurs when the concrete surface is not of sufficient strength when striking the formwork. more

Title: Poker burn   (969)
Short description: Dark coloured marks on the concrete surface. more

Title: Poker vibrators   (214)
Short description: Various types of vibrator are used on site. more

Title: Polished (grinding) surface finish   (730)
Short description: Concrete can be polished to varying degrees of smoothness, from matt to high gloss. more

Title: Polymer dispersion admixtures   (479)
Short description: Polymer dispersion admixtures are aqueous dispersions of synthetic polymers that form a continuous film when sufficient water is lost from the system. more

Title: Polymer modified cementitious screeds and wearing screeds   (821)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 3: more

Title: Polymers in concrete   (146)
Short description: Polymers are chemicals which can be added to concrete like an admixture, and undergo a reaction which changes them into long chain polymer molecules in the concrete. more

Title: Polypropylene fibres   (550)
Short description: Various types of short, chopped polypropylene fibres are available. more

Title: Portal Frame Bridges   (298)
Short description: Portal frames are generally designed for use below ground to provide waterways or pedestrian subways. more

Title: Portland cement and the environment   (141)
Short description: Portland cement is manufactured by heating limestone or chalk with clay in a rotary kiln to a high temperature (about 1450°C) to produce hard nodules of clinker that are then ground with a little gypsum in a ball mill. more

Title: Post-tensioned concrete   (9)
Short description: Compressive stresses are introduced in prestressed concrete either by pre-tensioning or post-tensioning the steel reinforcement. more

Title: Post-tensioned ground-supported floors   (246)
Short description: Ground-supported concrete floor slabs can be designed and constructed with some benefits using post-tensioning systems. more

Title: Post-tensioned suspended floors   (623)
Short description: The use of post-tensioned concrete floors in buildings has been consistently growing in recent years. more

Title: Post-tensioning concrete   (540)
Short description: In post-tensioning, the prestressing tendons, which may be located inside or outside the concrete, are tensioned after the concrete has hardened. more

Title: Post-tensioning concrete.   (394)
Short description: Post-tensioning is the process by which tendons (either steel strands or high tensile steel rods) are placed through preformed holes on the concrete and tensioned, once the concrete has gained sufficient strength. more

Title: Post-tensioning systems (previous and current)   (661)
Short description: The commercial use of prestressing in the UK began just before the Second World war. more

Title: Power-trowel shadow   (977)
Short description: This appears as a helicopter-blade-like shadow on power-trowelled concrete floor surfaces. more

Title: Precast Arch Bridges   (296)
Short description: Where headroom permits, arch-shaped precast bridge units provide an aesthetically pleasing alternative to rectangular portal bridges. more

Title: Precast beams   (308)
Short description: The cross-sections of a precast concrete beam will depend on its location within a structure, its purpose and how it is connected to other members. more

Title: Precast Bridges   (294)
Short description: Precast bridge beams are widely used in the construction of a variety of forms of concrete bridges. more

Title: Precast buildings   (396)
Short description: This section relates to commercial and industrial precast building construction. more

Title: Precast Buildings   (302)
Short description: All the structural components (columns, beams, slabs, walls, cladding) for use in industrial and commercial buildings, car parks, domestic buildings and other applications, are available from a number of manufacturers. more

Title: Precast columns   (307)
Short description: Precast concrete columns may be single or double storey height. more

Title: Precast Concrete   (333)
Short description: Precast concrete slabs, beams and other sections are commonly used as permanent formwork, often in composite construction. more

Title: Precast concrete   (529)
Short description: Precast concrete refers to concrete that is cast in a factory. more

Title: Precast concrete   (152)
Short description: Pre-cast concrete units can be purchased off the shelf in an already formed state. more

Title: Precast concrete   (90)
Short description: Precast concrete refers to concrete elements that are made in a factory and transported to site where they are joined to form the complete structure or part of the structure. more

Title: Precast concrete   (46)
Short description: The UK Certification Authority for Reinforcing Steels (generally known as UK CARES or CARES) operates a certification scheme for precast concrete units, covering the manufacture and supply of products. more

Title: Precast concrete suspended floors   (269)
Short description: A precast concrete suspended floor generally consists of precast units used in one of three ways. more

Title: Precast concrete.   (250)
Short description: Precast concrete refers to concrete elements/units that are made in a factory and transported to site where they are joined to form a complete structure or part of a structure. more

Title: Precast Eurocode 2 design manual   (850)
Short description: Precast Eurocode 2: more

Title: Precast footbridges   (299)
Short description: A number of manufacturers offer precast footbridge deck units, usually prestressed beams with pre-tensioned strands. more

Title: Precast ground beams   (624)
Short description: Traditionally ground beams for low-rise housing and similar applications are constructed in situ. more

Title: Precast methods   (179)
Short description: Precasting is used to produce standard concrete products under factory conditions. more

Title: Precast Paving British Standards   (327)
Short description: The following British Standards, which will be replaced by European Standards in due course, apply to precast paving: more

Title: Precast paving European Standards   (640)
Short description: The following European Standards relate to paving. more

Title: Precast products   (241)
Short description: Many of the characteristics of standard precast concrete products (such as the dimensions and the minimum properties of the concrete) are covered by appropriate British Standards. more

Title: Precast retaining walls   (303)
Short description: A range of options for retaining walls exist in precast concrete, including full height sections complete with supporting base, reinforced earth panels, and ‘criblock’ type systems utilising small elements that can be easily manhandled on site. more

Title: Precast Safety Barriers   (316)
Short description: Temporary precast concrete safety barriers, in accordance with Department of Transport requirements, are widely used to provide quick and safe protection of the workforce from passing traffic during work on busy roads. more

Title: Precast Shaft and Tunnel Linings   (304)
Short description: Precast concrete segments units are used to form the permanent lining for tunnels and shafts. more

Title: Precast Sleepers   (305)
Short description: Concrete sleepers are produced in two basic shapes, Monoblock (that run transversely and support both rails) and Twin Block (one block under each rail with a steel tie-bar between). more

Title: Precast staircases   (315)
Short description: To speed up site production, stair flights can be of precast instead of cast in-situ concrete. more

Title: Precast to precast connections   (403)
Short description: The joints between precast units are required to transmit loads. more

Title: Precast walls   (314)
Short description: Precast concrete walls may be used to provide stability in frame structures (shear walls), to carry vertical loads or to act as fire barriers. more

Title: Predicting future performance   (766)
Short description: Tests on the concrete in an existing structure can be used to determine the depth of carbonation at a given age (see Testing/Hardened concrete testing/Carbonation depth). more

Title: Prefabricated reinforcement   (112)
Short description: Prefabricated reinforcement is available from some suppliers. more

Title: Preliminary and routine inspection   (288)
Short description: In both preliminary and routine inspections, the objectives are to investigate the condition of a structure, to determine if a more detailed inspection is necessary, and to assess when further inspection will be required. more

Title: Prescribed - ready-mixed concrete   (432)
Short description: British Standard BS 8500-1: more

Title: Prestressed concrete   (10)
Short description: Prestressed concrete is concrete where an internal stress has been introduced to put the element into compression. more

Title: Prestressing - certification scheme   (42)
Short description: The UK Certification Authority for Reinforcing Steels (generally known as UK CARES or CARES) operates a certification scheme for post-tensioning systems. more

Title: Prestressing beds   (542)
Short description: Prestressing beds are used to produce a number of similar units at the same time. more

Title: Prestressing design   (232)
Short description: The basic design principle is that the prestressing force is provided to counteract the tensile forces induced in the concrete member by externally applied loads. more

Title: Prestressing jacks   (236)
Short description: The tensioning of the steel strand (or individual wires) is usually by means of hydraulic jacks. more

Title: Prestressing materials   (229)
Short description: The prestressing force is applied by wires or strands, usually of steel though fibre composite materials are being introduced. more

Title: Pre-tensioned concrete   (8)
Short description: Compressive stresses are introduced in prestressed concrete either by pre-tensioning or post-tensioning the steel reinforcement. more

Title: Pre-tensioning concrete.   (539)
Short description: In pre-tensioning the prestressing tendons are tensioned and anchored between fixed supports before the concrete is cast. more

Title: Preventing plastic settlements cracks   (510)
Short description: The tendency for plastic settlement cracks to form may be reduced by adjusting the concrete mix, for example by avoiding gap-graded fine aggregate and reducing the water content, and by appropriate workmanship and control of vibration. more

Title: Preventing plastic shrinkage cracks   (509)
Short description: The only certain way to avoid plastic shrinkage cracks is to reduce the rate of evaporation from the surface of fresh concrete by early curing. more

Title: Principles of mix design   (422)
Short description: There have been many methods developed from the simple volumetric batching to prescribed rules to the highly complicated using computer simulations. more

Title: Problems with concrete driveways   (929)
Short description: The Concrete Society is a membership organisation serving the construction industry and as such we can not carry out visits to assess problems with domestic concrete driveways. more

Title: Problems with thin floor coverings (´lino´)   (959)
Short description: more

Title: Product abbreviation   (419)
Short description: There are products that have long names. more

Title: Product certification   (546)
Short description: The word certification is defined as ‘an authoritative statement establishing that the claims made for a particular item are justified’. more

Title: Profiled Metal Sheeting   (334)
Short description: Profiled metal sheeting permanent formwork is mainly used for floor slabs in high-rise steel frame buildings where speed of erection has proved to be a major advantage. more

Title: Proprietary - ready-mixed concrete   (434)
Short description: British Standard BS 8500-1: more

Title: Protection to reinforcement   (92)
Short description: One of the important roles of the concrete is to protect the embedded steel reinforcement or prestressing tendons. more

Title: Provision of holes   (649)
Short description: The requirement for casting (or cutting) holes in reinforced concrete beams for services etc is a common one. more

Title: Pumpable self-smoothing screeds   (822)
Short description: These are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, Part 7: more

Title: Pumping - effects of weather extremes   (555)
Short description: The ambiant temperature has an effect on concrete pumping operations. more

Title: Pumping Aids   (480)
Short description: Modern pumps are able to cope with most concrete mixes but difficulties can be experienced with concretes made from aggregates that are poorly graded, elongated or flaky. more

Title: Pumping concrete   (553)
Short description: Concrete may be moved from the point of discharge, generaly a ready-mixed concrete truck, to the place at which it is required by pumping. more

Title: Punching shear cracks   (188)
Short description: Overloading of a slab in punching will lead to cracks forming on the tensile surface of the slab, radiating out from the column. more

Title: Quality management systems   (549)
Short description: Quality Management Systems are procedures that can be written against any published scheme that identifies procedures within an activity that can be corroborated. more

Title: Quartering-fresh concrete   (1001)
Short description: Quartering is the alternative method of reducing the size of a bulk fresh concrete sample. more

Title: Quatering of aggregate   (967)
Short description: Quartering is the alternative method of reducing the size of a bulk aggregate sample where a sample divider (riffle box) is not available. more

Title: Question on ´whole life performance´   (670)
Short description: What are meant by the terms ‘Whole Life Performance’ and ‘Whole Life Costs’? more

Title: Question on Alkali-silica reaction   (674)
Short description: What is alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and how can I recognise it? more

Title: Question on biological staining   (683)
Short description: I am concerned about a green growth on walls. more

Title: Question on blinding and sulfate resistance   (458)
Short description: Blinding is a non-structural concrete to form a level and more stable surface on which further works can be more readily undertaken and is typically of 50 to 100mm depth. more

Title: Question on chemical storage   (691)
Short description: I need to build a concrete bund wall to prevent spillage of chemicals. more

Title: Question on concrete deterioration   (695)
Short description: What common chemicals are harmful to/attack concrete? more

Title: Question on concrete gutters   (667)
Short description: My concrete roof gutters leak. more

Title: Question on curing and drying   (694)
Short description: What is the difference between drying and curing of concrete? more

Title: Question on environmental assessment   (671)
Short description: What does BREEAM mean? more

Title: Question on floor insulation   (690)
Short description: What is the build up of a floor to meet with the Building Regulations for thermal insulation? more

Title: Question on graffiti on walls   (668)
Short description: How can you remove graffiti from concrete? more

Title: Question on GRC   (685)
Short description: I have been told that the cladding panels on the building I manage are manufactured from GRC. more

Title: Question on hardcore materials   (663)
Short description: Is there any information on what materials are suitable for use as Hardcore? more

Title: Question on High Alumina Cement (HAC)   (687)
Short description: My building may contain High Alumina Cement concrete. more

Title: Question on inspecting render   (675)
Short description: My client has asked me to undertake an inspection of the condition of the render on the walls of his house. more

Title: Question on mature precast units   (693)
Short description: Where can I find information on the loading capacity of particular precast units in a mature structure? more

Title: Question on measuring environmental impact   (669)
Short description: What are Ecopoints? more

Title: Question on moisture in old concrete floors   (689)
Short description: I am renovating a house with concrete floors constructed in the 1950s. more

Title: Question on Mundic   (678)
Short description: An estate agent advises me that the cottage in Devon I am thinking of buying should be assessed for ‘mundic’ problems. more

Title: Question on post-war prefabricated houses   (684)
Short description: Why are mortgages dificult to obtain for post-war prefabricated houses? more

Title: Question on prefabricated houses   (682)
Short description: Are prefabricated houses being built in the UK? more

Title: Question on Radon   (686)
Short description: I live in an area at risk from Radon. more

Title: Question on rendering colour variation   (664)
Short description: New rendering to the gable house wall has colour variation and signs of cracking. more

Title: Question on screed durability   (672)
Short description: What has caused my sand cement screed to break-up? more

Title: Question on simple foundations for houses   (662)
Short description: Is there a ‘Rule of thumb’ method for simple foundations for low-rise housing? more

Title: Question on site investigation   (673)
Short description: What site investigation should take place before designing concrete foundations? more

Title: Question on student learning   (676)
Short description: I am a student doing a project. more

Title: Question on swimming pool chemicals   (692)
Short description: Are swimming pool chemicals aggresive to concrete? more

Title: Question on thermal mass   (688)
Short description: What is night cooling? more

Title: Question: Can you provide mix proportions for a C30/40 concrete?   (931)
Short description: Firstly, the reference C30/40 relates to the characteristic strength of the concrete. more

Title: Question: How do I carry out large area pours for suspended slabs?   (954)
Short description: Concrete Advice 23 Large area pours for suspended slabs provides a simple approach to help designers and contractors avoid unnecessary restrictions on pour size and gives guidance on the provision of reinforcement to control cracking due to restrained early thermal movements. more

Title: Question: How much reinforcement do I need in my beam?   (997)
Short description: The Concrete Society does not carry out the design of structural elements. more

Title: Radar surveys.   (465)
Short description: Ground-probing radar has a number of applications in the investigation of concrete structures. more

Title: Radiation shielding concrete   (786)
Short description: Heavyweight concrete is used for radiation shielding, for both medical and nuclear purposes. more

Title: Raft Foundations   (349)
Short description: Where the nature of the ground is such that spread foundations (pad or strip foundations) cover a large part of the area covered by the structure, a reinforced concrete raft foundation covering the whole area may be more effective. more

Title: Rail and concrete.   (174)
Short description: The main specialist applications for concrete in railways is for precast prestressed sleepers (ties). more

Title: Rain damaged concrete   (943)
Short description: Rain damage on external slabs or those destined to become internal slabs is usually only a surface defect. more

Title: Rapid migration test   (989)
Short description: There are indications that this test is less variable than the Rapid Chloride Permeability testing RCPT and unaffected by different cementitious materials and conductive admixtures. more

Title: Rationalisation of design   (361)
Short description: Rationalisation may be defined as the process of eliminating unnecessary variation by simplifying, reducing complexity and taking advantage of opportunities provided by manufacturing and prefabrication approaches. more

Title: REACH Regulation   (852)
Short description: The European Commission put forward proposals in 2003 to develop a system of registration for chemicals, known as Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH). more

Title: Ready-mixed concrete   (43)
Short description: The Quality Scheme for Ready Mixed Concrete (QSRMC) provides product compliance certification (in accordance with BS EN ISO 9001) for ready-mixed concrete supplied throughout the UK, covering over 1,100 plants. more

Title: Ready-mixed concrete plants   (211)
Short description: The majority of concrete is supplied from ready-mixed plants. more

Title: Ready-mixed mortars   (60)
Short description: The Standard is: more

Title: Ready-mixed trucks   (217)
Short description: Ready-mixed concrete is batched at an off site plant and transported to site. more

Title: Re-alkalisation of concrete.   (500)
Short description: The objective of re-alkalisation is to restore the alkalinity in carbonated concrete and to re-establish a passive environment around the reinforcement with the minimum of disruption to the concrete. more

Title: Re-alkalistaion & chloride extraction   (506)
Short description: DD CEN/TS 14038 ‘Electrochemical re-alkalisation and chloride extraction treatments for reinforced concrete’ is being developed. more

Title: Rebound hammer   (460)
Short description: The rebound (Schmidt) hammer is one of the oldest and best known methods of comparing the concrete in various parts of a structure and indirectly assessing concrete strength. more

Title: Recycled aggregates for concrete   (815)
Short description: The concrete industry makes up approximately 30% of the total market for aggregates and it is estimated that 165 million tonnes are used annually in concrete. more

Title: Recycled glass aggregate   (783)
Short description: The concrete industry places a heavy demand on primary aggregate sources; it is estimated that 165 million tonnes are used annually. more

Title: Recycled rubber   (794)
Short description: The concrete industry places a heavy demand on primary aggregate sources; it is estimated that 165 million tonnes are used annually. more

Title: Recycling and Disposal   (227)
Short description: Recycling concrete or concrete elements can be a valuable source of raw materials, reducing the need for extraction of minerals and the costs (both financial and environmental) associated with the disposal of waste materials. more

Title: Redesign of fire-damaged structures   (894)
Short description: Most fire-damaged structures can be successfully repaired, this being the more cost-effective solution than demolition and reconstruction. more

Title: Reducing crazing   (511)
Short description: Avoiding the following can reduce the occurrence of crazing: more

Title: Reducing drying shrinkage cracks   (512)
Short description: Drying shrinkage occurs within the cement paste fraction of the concrete. more

Title: Reference panels for surface finishes   (702)
Short description: The existing definitions of surface finishes in British Standards and other documents are extremely subjective. more

Title: Reflectance of concrete.   (916)
Short description: It can be important to maximise the light reflectance from an exposed surface, for example to reduce the artificial lighting requirement. more

Title: Reinforced concrete   (7)
Short description: Concrete, although strong in compression, is weak in tension. more

Title: Reinforced concrete bund structures   (952)
Short description: Bund structures around storage tanks are often required at industrial premises to contain the contents of the tanks in case they leak or rupture. more

Title: Reinforcement – Contamination and rust   (790)
Short description: The strength and performance of reinforced concrete depend on a good bond between the steel and the concrete. more

Title: Reinforcement - why is it needed?   (93)
Short description: Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. more

Title: Reinforcement ´carpets´   (552)
Short description: As an alternative to welded steel fabric reinforcement, which is available in sheets of limited size, one system offers reinforcing bars in the form of a ‘carpet’ or roll. more

Title: Reinforcement accessories   (121)
Short description: This covers all the items required for locating the reinforcement within the concrete and joining lengths of reinforcing bar. more

Title: Reinforcement accreditation   (26)
Short description: The UK Certification Authority for Reinforcing Steels (generally known as UK CARES or CARES) is an independent body that offers certification to companies that produce materials, components or provide services within the reinforced concrete industry. more

Title: Reinforcement depth   (459)
Short description: The depth of reinforcement below the surface of concrete can be measured using a covermeter. more

Title: Reinforcement Design   (113)
Short description: The design of the reinforcement follows standard procedures, as covered in Codes and Standards. more

Title: Reinforcement design strengths (historic)   (657)
Short description: The reinforcement stresses (in tension) to be used in design, as specified in the Code current at the time, have changed over the years as indicated below. more

Title: Reinforcement for concrete.   (196)
Short description: Most concrete structures contain reinforcing steel to carry the tensile forces and control crack development under load, at about 4% by volume of the concrete. more

Title: Reinforcement for concrete.   (390)
Short description: For information on the reinforcement required for in situ construction (including types, design and site operations) see main entry ´Reinforcement´ and subsequent sub-headings. more

Title: Reinforcement for large area pours   (787)
Short description: When considering the risk of cracking caused by early thermal movements in large area pours, there are two approaches that can be adopted. more

Title: Reinforcement for precast   (385)
Short description: For basic information on the reinforcement required for precast construction (including types and design) see category “Reinforcement” and subsequent sub-headings. more

Title: Reinforcement materials   (102)
Short description: British Codes of Practice are written on the assumption that normal carbon steel will be used and the requirements for durability are written accordingly. more

Title: Reinforcement ripple   (645)
Short description: Reinforcement ripple is the name given to a surface irregularity that sometimes occurs on the surface of large areas of flat concrete slabs. more

Title: Reinforcement shadow   (1022)
Short description: Occasionally, whether precast or in-situ formed concrete, the apparent position of the reinforcement is visible on the formed surface, typically as darker lines. more

Title: Reinforcement standards (historic)   (776)
Short description: The specified yield stresses specified in the Standards for reinforcement have varied over the years. more

Title: Reinforcement supply   (117)
Short description: When reinforcement is supplied cut and bent, it should be delivered to site with each bar mark (size and shape) individually bundled. more

Title: Reinforcement systems (historic)   (799)
Short description: In the early days of reinforced concrete (from the 1890s to 1920s), a number of proprietary reinforcement systems were used. more

Title: Reinforcing bar and fabric   (52)
Short description: The standards for reinforcing steel are: more

Title: Reinforcing bars   (110)
Short description: , mild steel and high yield steel respectively. more

Title: Remedial repair of cracks in floors   (899)
Short description: more

Title: Removal of Formwork   (346)
Short description: The timing of removal of formwork will depend on the rate of strength gain of the concrete: more

Title: Removing dirt   (583)
Short description: Most dirt on concrete surfaces can be removed with plain water or with a soft brush and water containing a mild soap. more

Title: Removing efflorescence   (582)
Short description: Efflorescence is a deposit of salt left on the surface of concrete by the evaporation of the moisture that brought the salts from within the structure. more

Title: Removing graffiti   (581)
Short description: Various proprietary products are available for the removal of graffiti from concrete. more

Title: Removing moss, lichens etc   (579)
Short description: Moss, lichens, algae and other growths are often associated with concrete that has a high moisture content. more

Title: Removing oil stains   (580)
Short description: Lubricating or fuel oil penetrates rapidly into concrete. more

Title: Removing sealers and coatings   (1023)
Short description: more

Title: Repair and strengthening   (94)
Short description: It may be necessary to repair a concrete structure following damage (e. more

Title: Repair Guidance Notes   (848)
Short description: A Series of Repair Guidance Notes has been prepared by the Joint Liaison Committee of the Concrete Society, Institute of Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention Association. more

Title: Repair materials   (239)
Short description: As far as possible, the properties of the materials selected for repair should be close to those of the parent concrete. more

Title: Repair of concrete   (153)
Short description: Concrete in service will be subject to chemical and physical changes, as well as mechanical damage. more

Title: Repair of concrete   (584)
Short description: For information on the repair of damaged concrete structures see main heading Repair and strengthening and subsequent sub-headings. more

Title: Repair of concrete   (291)
Short description: If defects are found during an inspection and the diagnosis highlights the need for repair there are several matters to be considered. more

Title: Repair of cracks   (184)
Short description: Repair of cracks may be necessary to improve the appearance or durability of the structure. more

Title: Repair of fire damaged structures   (895)
Short description: Most fire-damaged structures can be successfully repaired, this being the more cost-effective solution than demolition and reconstruction. more

Title: Repair Standards   (508)
Short description:  The main Standard is BS EN 1504, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures: more

Title: Repair techniques   (237)
Short description: Various techniques are available for repairing concrete structures. more

Title: Repairs in shutters   (495)
Short description: Temporary shutters are used where large areas or large volumes of concrete have to be replaced and a formed finish is required. more

Title: Retarded surface finish   (727)
Short description: Retarding the surface concrete produces an effect similar to acid etching (see separate entry Acid etched finish). more

Title: Retarding admixtures   (472)
Short description: Retarding admixtures have little or no effect other than to delay the setting of the cement. more

Title: Ribbed floor elements (BS EN)   (763)
Short description: The requirements for precast ribbed elements made from reinforced or prestressed normal weight concrete, used in floors or roofs, are given in: more

Title: Riffle box   (966)
Short description: more

Title: Ring saw   (830)
Short description: This is a hydraulic or petrol powered hand held unit which gives a cutting depth of 260 mm from a 350mm diameter blade. more

Title: Risk of damaging alkali-silica reaction   (765)
Short description: For ASR to occur in its damaging form, sufficient alkalinity of the pore water solution (hydroxyl ion concentration) must be present to react with certain forms of silica in the aggregate to form a gel. more

Title: Road concrete   (164)
Short description: Concrete used in the construction of roads and airfield runways and aprons is not unlike that used in other building or civil engineering projects. more

Title: Road Gullies   (330)
Short description: Road gullies (to BS 5911-6: more

Title: Roads & airports   (172)
Short description: Concrete is widely used for the construction of roads and airfield pavements, either for the complete structure or for the sub-base carrying an asphalt running surface. more

Title: Roller compacted concrete   (530)
Short description: Roller compacted concrete takes its name from the construction method used to place it. more

Title: Roof elements (BS EN)   (761)
Short description: The requirements, basic performance criteria and the evaluation of conformity for special precast roof elements made of reinforced or prestressed normal weight concrete are covered by: more

Title: Rotary percussive (hammer) drill   (742)
Short description: The hand-held rotary percussive (hammer) drill is the basic tool for drilling into unreinforced concrete. more

Title: Safe concrete pumping   (907)
Short description: Concrete in pump pipelines is often under considerable pressure, so that the safety of site staff must be considered. more

Title: Safety - definition.   (608)
Short description: In the context of this section, safety refers to the measures required for an operative´s safe working practice rather than his physical well being i. more

Title: Salt efflorescence   (974)
Short description: Salt efflorescence appears as a white ‘fluffy’ deposit on the surface of masonry. more

Title: Sampling and testing fresh concrete   (906)
Short description: The sampling and testing of fresh concrete for consistence (workability) and casting cubes for strength testing must be carried out correctly so that the results are representative of the concrete supplied. more

Title: Sampling the concrete   (557)
Short description: Sampling should be in accordance with BS EN 12350-1, Testing fresh concrete. more

Title: Screed materials   (611)
Short description: European codes are in preparation (some published) to cover material properties. more

Title: Screeds – general   (823)
Short description: Screeds are covered by BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings, (2004). more

Title: Sea water and unreinforced concrete   (1012)
Short description: more

Title: Segmental Bridge Construction   (404)
Short description: Segmental bridges are made from precast concrete units stressed together with strand or bars. more

Title: Segmental Bridge Construction   (297)
Short description: Segmental bridges are made from precast concrete units stressed together with strand or bars. more

Title: Self compacting concrete   (198)
Short description: Compaction of concrete is often seen as the Achilles´ heel of traditional concrete, poor compaction affecting concrete´s physical appearance, its strength and durability. more

Title: Self-cleaning concrete   (826)
Short description: Strong sunlight or ultraviolet light decomposes many organic materials in a slow natural process (observe how items left in a shop window fade and become brittle with time). more

Title: Self-compacting concrete admixtures   (481)
Short description: With careful mix design, self-compacting concrete (SCC) admixtures produce a concrete that is fully flowing and self-compacting and which can be placed with no vibration. more

Title: Self-compacting concrete guidelines   (841)
Short description: European guidelines for self-compacting concrete have been published by EFNARC, (the European Federation of Producers and Applicators of Specialist Products or Structures) and are available from more

Title: Serviceability design   (32)
Short description: Structures should perform adequately under normal service conditions. more

Title: Sewage and concrete attack   (936)
Short description: In general terms domestic sewage does not attack concrete in direct contact with it. more

Title: Shear cracks   (186)
Short description: to the axis of the beam, from the tension face of the member back towards the support. more

Title: Shrinkage-reducing admixtures   (482)
Short description: Shrinkage-reducing admixtures added during batching can significantly decrease both the early and long-term drying shrinkage. more

Title: Sign Gantries   (300)
Short description: Sign gantries, consisting of prestressed beams and reinforced columns, are being used on motorways and major roads. more

Title: Silica Fume   (137)
Short description: Silica fume (sf) is the byproduct of the manufacture of silicon for the computer industry. more

Title: Site Applications   (116)
Short description:  more

Title: Skips & buckets   (218)
Short description: Skips and buckets, lifted by crane, are commonly used for distributing concrete on sites where material has to be moved vertically as well as horizontally. more

Title: Slip resistance   (853)
Short description: Owners and managers of floors are increasingly aware of the need to ensure safe floors. more

Title: Slump test   (559)
Short description: The slump test is a means of assessing the consistency of fresh concrete. more

Title: Solid slabs   (309)
Short description: Solid prestressed slabs , usually 600 mm or 1200 mm wide, act compositely with a structural concrete topping, to form a robust composite floor. more

Title: Spacers and chairs   (123)
Short description: The correct cover to the reinforcement is normally created by spacers placed to keep the reinforcement a set distance (cover) from the formwork surface during construction. more

Title: Spacers and chairs for reinforcement location   (409)
Short description: The Standard for spacers and chairs is: more

Title: Spacers and visual concrete   (942)
Short description: To achieve the specified concrete cover to reinforcement, separation between the form-face and the reinforcement is provided by the use of a spacer or chair. more

Title: Span by span construction - Applications   (381)
Short description: With this type of construction, there is a limit on the span length due to the capability of the gantry to span between the supports and also to take the dead weight of the deck with controlled deflection. more

Title: Span by span construction - General   (380)
Short description: For long viaducts where access from below is limited, expensive or practically impossible construction of the deck can be started from one end, one span at a time. more

Title: Special concretes   (161)
Short description: Particular situations will require a special concrete mix to fulfil the circumstances. more

Title: Specification – Post-tensioned flat slabs   (756)
Short description: UK CARES has published a Model specification for bonded and unbonded post-tensioned flat slabs. more

Title: Specification of historic concrete   (792)
Short description: The First Edition of Reinforced Concrete Designers’ Handbook (1932) by Reynolds proposes a series of concrete mixes A to F, with proportions ranging from 1: more

Title: Specification of materials   (242)
Short description: The specification of concrete, and most of the materials used in its production(such as the cement, aggregates etc) are covered by appropriate British and European Standards. more

Title: Specifying concrete - BS 5328 and BS 8500   (56)
Short description: BS 5328, Concrete was in four Parts. more

Title: Specifying ready-mixed concrete   (437)
Short description: In order to purchase a concrete from a ready-mixed concrete supplier, or other provider, the requirements of the concrete need to be specified. more

Title: Sprayed concrete - shotcrete - gunite   (566)
Short description: Sprayed concrete (also known as shotcrete and gunite) is a process by which concrete or mortar is conveyed through a hose and projected pneumatically at high velocity from a nozzle into its final location. more

Title: Sprayed concrete admixtures   (476)
Short description: Sprayed concrete is pumped to the point of application and then pneumatically projected into place at high velocity, frequently vertical or overhead. more

Title: Sprayed concrete for repair   (496)
Short description: Sprayed concrete is produced by the wet or dry process. more

Title: Sprayed concrete tunnel linings   (371)
Short description: Sprayed concrete is used to provide temporary support for tunnels through weak rock, stabilising the rock by filling crack and openings. more

Title: Spreadsheets for design to BS EN 1991   (781)
Short description: Spreadsheets for design to Eurocode 2, BS EN 1992-1-1 are available from more

Title: Stainless Steel   (106)
Short description: There are a number of different chemical compositions for steels that are defined as ‘stainless’. more

Title: Stainless steel reinforcement   (797)
Short description: The standard for stainless steel reinforcing bars is BS 6744, Stainless steel bars for the reinforcement of and use in concrete – Requirements and test methods. more

Title: Standard Bridge Beams   (295)
Short description: Standard precast bridge beams of various shapes and depths of cross-section are available for a range of spans and applications. more

Title: Standard for Cement   (55)
Short description: BS EN 197 Cement. more

Title: Standardised prescribed - ready-mixed concrete   (433)
Short description: British Standard BS 8500-1: more

Title: Standards and codes   (167)
Short description: The tests associated with the materials used in concrete and on the fresh and hardened concrete are covered by British Standards (to be replaced in due course by European Standards) and other regulations that cover health and safety. more

Title: Standards foe cementitious additions   (58)
Short description: The current Standards for additions are as follows. more

Title: Standards for Prestressing steel   (53)
Short description: The standards for prestressing steel are: more

Title: Standards for screeds, bases and in-situ floorings   (759)
Short description: The design of screeds, bases and in-situ flooring is covered by various parts of BS 8204, Screeds, bases and in-situ floorings as follows: more

Title: Standards, codes and regulations   (96)
Short description: The materials used in concrete, the loads to be applied to structures, design and much of the construction process are covered by British Standards (to be replaced in due course by European Standards) and other regulations that cover health and safety. more

Title: Standing Committee on Structural Safety   (614)
Short description: The Standing Committee on Structural Safety (SCOSS) is an independent body supported by the Institutions of Civil and Structural Engineers and the Health & Safety Executive to maintain a continuing review of building and civil engineering matters affecting the safety of structures. more

Title: Standpipe test   (985)
Short description: The standpipe test is one of the simplest tests for measuring the water absorption characteristics of concrete. more

Title: Starter bar units or continuity strips   (125)
Short description: Starter bar units, or continity strips, are used as an efficient means of maintaining continuity across structural joints in concrete. more

Title: Steel fabric reinforced floors   (157)
Short description: Concrete ground-supported floor slabs commonly incorporate a layer of steel fabric reinforcement, to assist in the control of cracking which can be caused by restraint to shrinkage movement of the concrete. more

Title: Steel fibre corrosion   (908)
Short description: Corrosion of steel is an electrochemical process with different reactions occurring at the anodic and cathodic sites. more

Title: Steel fibre reinforced concrete strength test   (791)
Short description: The flexural tensile strength of concrete is measured in accordance with BS EN 14651: more

Title: Steel fibres   (376)
Short description: Steel fibres mixed into the concrete can provide an alternative to the provision of conventional steel bars or welded fabric in some applications. more

Title: Steel Mesh & Expanded Metal   (338)
Short description: Steel mesh and expanded metal can be used as permanent formwork, generally in vertical applications. more

Title: Steel plate bonding   (38)
Short description: The technique of strengthening concrete structures by bonding steel plates to the external faces, using epoxy adhesive, was pioneered in the late 1960s. more

Title: Steel strand & wire   (230)
Short description: ) may be used for prestressing. more

Title: Steel Tubing   (335)
Short description: Heavy gauge steel tubes (or fabricated sections) can be used as the permanent formwork for columns. more

Title: Steel/concrete suspended floors   (843)
Short description: As an alternative to concrete precast units (see Structural elements/Suspended floors/Composite suspended floors), profiled steel decking may be used as permanent formwork with in-situ concrete (often lightweight aggregate concrete) to form a composite floor slab. more

Title: Steel-fibre-reinforced concrete   (840)
Short description: Design of steel-fibre-reinforced concrete is not covered by design standards such as BS 8110 (now withdrawn) or Eurocode 2, which assume the use of bar reinforcement. more

Title: Storing admixtures   (487)
Short description: Admixtures are usually stored in bulk, in plastic tanks, metal tanks or barrels. more

Title: Straightening and rebending reinforcement   (650)
Short description: The requirement to bend or rebend reinforcement partly cast into concrete falls into two broad categories: more

Title: Street furniture   (255)
Short description: Concrete is widely used for street furniture, such as bollards, street lighting standards, benches, litter bins, masonry, planters, garden ornaments, etc. more

Title: Street furniture & garden products   (641)
Short description: Precast concrete street furniture and garden products are covered by: more

Title: Strength of historic concrete   (737)
Short description: The strength of the concrete in historic structures is likely to be very variable. more

Title: Strengthening techniques   (238)
Short description: Various techniques are available for strengthening concrete structures, to increase the load-carrying capacity or else to improve the in-service performance. more

Title: Strengthening with FRP plate   (927)
Short description: Workmanship is a key aspect of the use of externally-bonded fibre composite plates for strengthening concrete structures. more

Title: Strip constructed floors   (155)
Short description: In strip construction of a concrete floor slab the floor is cast in long strips of typically up to about 6 to 9m width between side forms. more

Title: Structural concrete   (4)
Short description: Although concrete is seen by many as a single material, it can be produced with many variable characteristics including strength, fluidity, colour and weight. more

Title: Structural concrete.   (226)
Short description: The use of concrete for the main structural elements of a building will have a significant impact on the in-service performance by improving the insulation (both heat and sound transmission) and by improving the thermal characteristics. more

Title: Structural elements   (97)
Short description: A concrete structural element is a member or part of a building, e. more

Title: Structural over-loading   (524)
Short description: Overloading the structure, or accidental loads such as impacts, will lead to the development of cracks. more

Title: Structural Standards.   (240)
Short description: All aspects of the loadings to be applied to structures, the design approaches and aspects of health and safety (both during the construction process and during the life of the structure) are covered by appropriate British and European Standards along with regulations. more

Title: Structural topping thickness to precast planks   (924)
Short description: Precast composite floors require a concrete topping for structural purposes, levelling purposes and a finished surface. more

Title: Stud shear reinforcement   (896)
Short description: Punching shear reinforcement is often required in slabs around column heads. more

Title: Sugars in formwork   (733)
Short description: more

Title: Sulfate in concrete   (836)
Short description: Excessive amounts of mobile sulfate, derived from aggregates or other constituents in concrete, can cause disruption due to expansion. more

Title: Sulfate resisting cement   (855)
Short description: The BS 4027 Sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) is now not available, however EN 197 has now introduced a Sulfate-resisting Portland cement designated as CEM I-SR. more

Title: Sulfates and concrete.   (281)
Short description: Sulfates react with concrete resulting in an expansive formation of ettringite or gypsum in hardened concrete causing cracking and exfoliation. more

Title: Sulfides in concrete.   (516)
Short description: Damaging chemical reactions can occur with rock types containing sulfides, that lead to the formation of iron oxides and sulfate ions, which combine with the calcium-rich material of the cement paste to generate gypsum. more

Title: Superabsorbent Polymers   (1033)
Short description: Superabsorbent Polymers (SAPs) can act as internal curing agents in concrete. more

Title: Superplasticising admixtures   (471)
Short description: Superplasticising/high-range water-reducing admixtures significantly reduce the amount of water needed to achieve a given workability in plastic concrete. more

Title: Surface coatings   (563)
Short description: Coatings may be used as part of the repair process to provide additional protection to both the existing concrete and the repair. more

Title: Surface crack width   (754)
Short description: Surface crack width depends on the percentage reinforcement and depth of cover. more

Title: Surface finish   (258)
Short description: Face contact material is material that is in direct contact with the concrete as it is poured, and acts as the containment shape. more

Title: Surface regularity - departure from datum   (1008)
Short description: Level to datum is a measure of departure from a fixed plane (datum) specified by the designer. more

Title: Surface regularity - Free and Defined Movement   (1010)
Short description: In warehouses the materials handling equipment (MHE) such as forlifts, counterbalance trucks etc, operate in two distinct areas of traffic movement; Free movement and Defined movement. more

Title: Surface regularity - levelness and flatness   (1007)
Short description:

more


Title: Surface regularity - straightedge method   (1009)
Short description: The current method is described in BS 8204 Screeds, bases and in situ floorings, which uses a 2m long straightedge placed directly in contact with the surface and the maximum deviations below the straightedge recorded. more

Title: Surface regularity - straightedge Standards   (1006)
Short description: A method of assessing flatness was given in CP 204: more

Title: Suspended floors   (245)
Short description: A suspended concrete floor is a floor slab where its perimeter is, or at least two of its opposite edges are, supported on walls, beams or columns that carry its self weight and imposed loading. more

Title: Table form/Flying form   (856)
Short description: A table form/flying form is a large preassembled formwork and falsework unit, often forming a complete bay of a suspended floor slab. more

Title: Tamped finish   (879)
Short description: A tamped finish for unformed surfaces is produced by raising and lowering the compacting beam in its final pass to produce a surface with ridges at a fairly regular spacing of 20 to 30mm and up to 5mm high. more

Title: Technical approval & certification   (548)
Short description: There are various schemes for the approval and certification of products and processes, which operate either at a National or International level. more

Title: Technical approval (CPD)   (545)
Short description: Technical Approval both at national and at European level (by way of the Construction Products Directive) is very similar to the process of Agrément in that a performance based specification has to be written and then the products and/or systems are evaluated against the specification. more

Title: Tension stiffening   (731)
Short description: Three basic phenomena of concrete behaviour lead to deflections increasing with time: more

Title: Terminology in European Codes   (802)
Short description: Some of the terms in European Standards differ from those used previously in British Standards. more

Title: Terms relating to cement and concrete   (630)
Short description: Definitions of the various terms relating to the use of concrete in building and civil engineering may be found in the various Parts of BS 6100, Glossary of building and civil engineering terms. more

Title: Terrazzo tiles and concrete flags   (824)
Short description: As with in-situ Terrazzo mixes, Terrazzo tiles consist of crushed marble in a cementitious matrix, however the tiles often have a plain cement mortar lower half. more

Title: Test methods for repair materials   (507)
Short description: Various European Standards covering test methods for protection and repair materials have been published or are being developed. more

Title: Testing of concrete   (98)
Short description: Testing of fresh concrete (and its constituent materials) will normally be carried out during production to ensure that it complies with the specification. more

Title: Testing of materials   (243)
Short description: Testing of fresh concrete, mortar or grout may be required for compliance purposes. more

Title: Testing on site   (165)
Short description: Testing on site is normally confined to assessing the compliance of the concrete with its required fresh properties i. more

Title: Testing self compacting concrete - J-ring test   (961)
Short description: The J-ring test to BS EN 12350-12 is used to assess passing ability of self-compacting concrete to flow through tight openings including spaces between reinforcing bars. more

Title: Testing self compacting concrete: L-box test   (964)
Short description: The L-Box test to BS EN 12350-10 is used to assess the passing ability of self-compacting concrete to flow through tight obstructions without segregation or blocking. more

Title: Testing self compacting concrete: Slump-flow test   (963)
Short description: The Slump-flow test to BS EN 12350-8 is used to assess flowability and flow rate. more

Title: Testing self compacting concrete: V-funnel test   (962)
Short description: - Time until can first see through gate (nearest 0. more

Title: Testing self compacting concrete:Sieve segregation test   (965)
Short description: - Allow 10 ± 0. more

Title: Testing sprayed concrete (shotcrete)   (812)
Short description: Currently the testing sprayed concrete (or shotcrete), both in the fresh and hardened state, is covered by European Federation of Producers and Applicators of Specialist Products for Structures (EFNARC), European specification for sprayed concrete, available from more

Title: Tests on buildings and structures   (567)
Short description: There are various tests that may be undertaken on buildings and structures. more

Title: Tests on buried structures   (569)
Short description: There are various tests that may be carried out on buried structures and structures in contact with the ground. more

Title: Tests on cores other than strength   (466)
Short description: Laboratory tests of porosity, water absorption, permeability and diffusion of gases and ionic species can be carried out on sections from cores. more

Title: Tests on marine, offshore and highway structures   (568)
Short description: There are various tests that may be carried out on marine, offshore and highway structures. more

Title: The basic hardening process   (3)
Short description: When the constituents of concrete (cement, aggregate and water) are brought together, the cement and water chemically react and eventually set to form a hard mass which adheres to and binds together the aggregates to form concrete. more

Title: The birth of modern cement   (448)
Short description: Joseph Aspdin’s patent of 1824 for Portland cement (so called due to its resemblance when hardened to Portland Stone ), is often considered as a landmark in the history of cement production. more

Title: The birth of modern concrete   (446)
Short description: A revival of interest in concrete in the 18th century occurred when engineers and scientists began to experiment with new cements culminating in the development of Portland cement by Joseph Aspdin and later by Isaac Johnson. more

Title: The Concrete Society - Advertising opportunities   (1038)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – An independent member-based organisation   (1044)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society - Annual Awards   (1043)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society - CONCRETE & CEI magazines   (1047)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – Help from the Advisory Service   (1040)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – Helping to inform the industry   (1046)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – Library service and archive   (1041)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – Membership categories   (1042)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society - Online Members’ area   (1045)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society - Regional Network   (1048)
Short description: more

Title: The Concrete Society – What is the Advisory Service?   (1039)
Short description: more

Title: The ground as permanent formwork   (331)
Short description: Slabs for roads, buildings etc may be cast directly on the ground. more

Title: The use of computers in the design of concrete structures   (949)
Short description: more

Title: Thermal and Shrinkage Cracking in Suspended Slabs   (948)
Short description: Several papers have been written to deal with individual aspects of shrinkage/thermal movement. more

Title: Thermal contraction cracks   (20)
Short description: Cracks formed within the first two or three weeks after casting caused by restraint to early thermal movements. more

Title: Thermal mass- an example   (592)
Short description: Concrete and cementitious-based products have much to offer as environmentally friendly materials. more

Title: Thermal mass of concrete   (591)
Short description: When we touch concrete we feel it as a ‘cold’ material. more

Title: Thermoplastic carbon-based cements   (1004)
Short description: One example of a thermoplastic carbon-based cement is C-Fix which is a carbon-based organic cement. more

Title: Tilt-up construction   (386)
Short description: Tilt-up is form of construction in which the wall is precast horizontally on the ground adjacent to its permanent location and then lifted up into the vertical plane. more

Title: Timber permanent formwork   (343)
Short description: There may be situations where conventional timber formwork has to be left in place if it difficult or not possible to remove it. more

Title: Time limit between placing fresh concrete layers   (1030)
Short description: There is often debate about the time limit between placing fresh concrete against fresh concrete already placed and compacted i. more

Title: Tooled surface finish   (729)
Short description: Tooling is more aggressive than grit blasting (see separate entry Grit blasted surface finish) and produces a rougher texture. more

Title: Torsion cracks   (187)
Short description: Pure torsion in a beam is typified by a series of inclined cracks running roughly parallel throughout the length of the member. more

Title: Towers and chimneys   (175)
Short description: Concrete towers and chimneys are widely used by the power generation industry, in applications such as traditional coal-fired power stations, nuclear power plants and, more recently, wind farms. more

Title: Track/wall saw   (745)
Short description: This equipment was developed to enable cutting of door and window openings through walls as well as through floors for stairways, lifts, etc. more

Title: Translucent concrete   (758)
Short description: Two forms of translucent concrete have been noted in the architectural press as follows: more

Title: Transport & placing   (212)
Short description: Ready mixed concrete is transported in purpose-built trucks. more

Title: Trapezoidal Linings   (322)
Short description: Trapezoidal tunnel linings were developed for use with tunnel boring machines and have been used successfully with a range of different types of machine. more

Title: Treatment of reinforcement   (492)
Short description: The reinforcement exposed during repair has to be cleaned so that protective treatment can be applied. more

Title: Trench-Fill Foundations   (350)
Short description: Traditionally the foundations for the walls of houses and similar buildings have consisted of strip foundations (generally unreinforced) with block or brick masonry up to damp proof course level. more

Title: Trial panels as bench marks   (994)
Short description: An essential part of the preconstruction programme of any contract involving visual concrete should be the building of a large sample or full-size mock-up of a section of the structure. more

Title: Tunnel form systems   (862)
Short description: Tunnel form systems are used to construct repetitive cellular structures (such as hotels and apartment blocks) and enable the construction of horizontal and vertical elements (floors and walls) together. more

Title: Tunnel-form construction   (534)
Short description: Tunnel form systems are used for the construction of units for hotels, flats, houses and similar structures. more

Title: Tunnels and concrete.   (171)
Short description: Concrete is widely used to form the load-bearing lining of tunnels. more

Title: Two-point test (rheology of fresh concrete)   (1000)
Short description: Fresh concrete can be considered to behave as a Bingham plastic i. more

Title: Tying wire/clips   (122)
Short description: Where individual bars are to be fixed together, the most economical connection is the hand-made tie using 16 gauge annealed tying wire. more

Title: Types of Dams   (368)
Short description: ‘Gravity’ dams´, as their name implies, resist the thrust of the retained water (resisting both sliding and overturning) by their own weight. more

Title: Types of falsework   (264)
Short description: The most common type of falsework supports the soffit formwork of beams and slabs. more

Title: Types of Portland cement   (133)
Short description: Portland Cement (PC) is the most common form of cement used for general purposes. more

Title: Types of reinforcement   (109)
Short description: Most reinforcement is in the form of bars though welded fabric (mats) are available particularly for use in floors and slabs. more

Title: Typical units for concrete properties   (414)
Short description: The following table gives the preferred units for various properties of concrete. more

Title: U Values   (593)
Short description: The conduction of heat is quantified using the thermal conductivity coefficient, or k-value (W/m. more

Title: UK cement plant locations   (760)
Short description: The location of currently operating cement plants in UK are shown below. more

Title: UKAS Testing   (44)
Short description: The United Kingdom Accreditation Scheme (UKAS) provides accreditation for testing and calibration laboratories. more

Title: Ultimate strength   (33)
Short description: The structure must be designed so that it can safely carry the design ultimate dead, wind and imposed loads. more

Title: Ultrasonic pulse velocity   (461)
Short description: Measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is a means of assessing variations in the apparent strength of concrete. more

Title: Underwater concrete   (1031)
Short description: Most underwater concrete is mixed on the surface in the conventional manner and then placed underwater by one of a variety of methods. more

Title: Underwater concrete admixtures   (483)
Short description: Underwater concrete anti-washout admixtures increase the cohesion of the concrete in a way that significantly reduces the washing out of cementitious material and sand from fresh concrete placed underwater. more

Title: Units of measurement   (415)
Short description: Units of measurement have been standardised. more

Title: Vacuum dewatering   (782)
Short description: Fresh concrete contains a continuous system of water filled channels. more

Title: Vapour resistance of concrete   (944)
Short description: vapour resistance of a building material in order to model and control the interstitial condensation in buildings. more

Title: Variation in declared cement content   (1037)
Short description: against the mix design certificate. more

Title: Vebe test   (979)
Short description: The Vebe test is described in BS EN 12350-3: more

Title: Vertical panel formwork systems   (859)
Short description: Crane lifted panel systems are commonly used on building sites to form vertical elements and usually consist of a steel frame with plywood, steel, plastic or composite facing material. more

Title: Vertical slipform systems   (861)
Short description: Slipform systems are similar in nature and application to jump form systems, but the formwork is raised vertically by hydraulic jacks in a continuous process. more

Title: Vertical slipforming   (181)
Short description: Slipforming is a technique for rapid construction of tall concrete structures, it involves the extrusion of the concrete in situ rather than casting in short lifts. more

Title: Void formers   (992)
Short description: The formation of openings in concrete, either to reduce the weight of the structure or to provide access for services, calls for particular attention in the selection of the former material, positioning and subsequent withdrawal if required. more

Title: Voided suspended floors   (865)
Short description: Voided suspended slabs can be constructed by incorporating hollow plastic spheres between the upper and lower reinforcement layers. more

Title: Wash water   (201)
Short description: Typically, for every litre of water used in concrete, a litre of water is used to wash out the truck on return from site. more

Title: Washing out ready-mixed concrete trucks on-site   (837)
Short description:

more


Title: Washwater admixtures   (484)
Short description: There is a growing problem with disposal of washwater from cleaning the inside of truck mixer drums at many ready-mixed concrete plants. more

Title: Waste transfer facility floors - damage from abrasion   (946)
Short description: more

Title: Water absorption limits on aggregates   (910)
Short description: Limits on aggregate water absorption are rare though they may be useful to link to an undesirable concrete property, such as freeze-thaw susceptibility, as water absorption is easily determined. more

Title: Water content   (142)
Short description: The water content affects the amount of drying shrinkage, the water cement ratio, and the workability of the plastic concrete. more

Title: Water for concrete   (138)
Short description: Water is needed in concrete for two reasons, firstly to hydrate the cement and secondly to provide mobility when the concrete is in its fluid state (workability). more

Title: Water held in concrete   (909)
Short description: Not all the construction water used in concrete to make it workable is used in the hydation process. more

Title: Water resisting admixtures   (475)
Short description: Water-resisting admixtures are more commonly, though strictly incorrectly, called ‘waterproofing’ admixtures and may also be called ‘permeability-reducing’ admixtures. more

Title: Water retaining concrete class C35A   (913)
Short description: For design purposes, BS 8007, Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids, 1987 generally referred to BS 8110, Structural use of concrete. more

Title: Water/cement ratio   (140)
Short description: The water/cement ratio is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement in the fresh concrete mix. more

Title: Weathering of concrete   (517)
Short description: Weathering is the effect of pollution and natural forces, such as frost, rain and sunlight, on a structure. more

Title: Weight or mass and density of concrete   (11)
Short description: The weight  or mass  of a cubic metre of concrete can be expressed as a density. more

Title: Welding reinforcement   (751)
Short description: Welding reinforcement offers advantages over conventional tying. more

Title: What are fixings?   (168)
Short description: Fixings are for the connection of items to the concrete once it has hardened, such as supporting brackets. more

Title: What is Agrément?   (544)
Short description: Agrément, when literally translated, means approval. more

Title: What is concrete?   (1)
Short description: more

Title: What is Concrete?   (75)
Short description: Concrete is an engineering material that simulates the properties of rock being a combination of particles closely bound together. more

Title: What is Crazing?   (21)
Short description: Crazing is a close pattern of narrow shallow interconnected cracks usually forming closed polygons. more

Title: What is Falsework?   (81)
Short description: Falsework is the general term for the structure that is required to support the formwork while the concrete is being cast and until such time as the concrete has gained sufficient strength to carry its own weight and general constuction and any other imposed loading. more

Title: What is Ferrocement?   (526)
Short description: Ferrocement is a composite material composed of a mortar reinforced with light steel fabric/mesh, used to form thin sections. more

Title: What is Formwork?   (79)
Short description: Formwork is the general term given to the mould into which concrete is poured. more

Title: What is Metakaolin?   (768)
Short description: Metakaolin is a pozzolan, probably the most effective pozzolanic material for use in concrete. more

Title: What is Phenol?   (811)
Short description: Phenols are common contaminants of brownfield sites where coal carbonation (manufacture of town gas, coking plants and tar works) occurred. more

Title: What is Prestressing?   (89)
Short description: Prestressing is the process by which a concrete element is compressed, generally by steel wires or strands. more

Title: What is Sustainability?   (224)
Short description: The principles of Sustainability were defined by the Rio Declaration as "The central development parameters of man and the environment must be so structured that the long tern existence of human society is guaranteed. more

Title: What is Thermography?   (574)
Short description: Thermography uses temperature sensors to detect voids in or below concrete, areas of delamination and areas of poor compaction. more

Title: When to add admixtures   (486)
Short description: In general, for optimum performance, admixtures should be added at the end of the batching process along with some of the mixing water, never directly onto dry materials. more

Title: Who would analyse a sample of concrete found at a crime scene?   (1049)
Short description: more

Title: Wimpey No-fines concrete   (904)
Short description: George Wimpey and Co. more

Title: Wood-wool Slabs   (341)
Short description: Wood-wool slabs are made of long-fibre wood shavings compressed and bound together with cement. more

Title: Workmanship and Execution standards   (62)
Short description: Workmanship, now termed Execution, is covered in many Standards. more

Title: Workmanship and execution.   (921)
Short description:

more


Title: Yield line analysis   (600)
Short description: Yield line design is a well-founded method of designing reinforced concrete slabs. more

 
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